Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids, Second Edition compiles the most relevant aspects of harmonics in a way that the unfamiliar reader can better grasp the subject matter and the experienced reader can directly access specific subjects of interest. The text begins with a definition of harmonics, along with analytical expressions for electrical parameters under nonsinusoidal situations, and then:

  • Discusses important and widely used industry standards to control harmonic distortion levels
  • Describes methods to mitigate the effects of harmonics, detailing the operation principles and design of passive filters and active filter fundamentals
  • Presents alternative methods, such as stiffer AC sources, power converters with increased number of pulses, series reactors, and load reconfiguration
  • Reviews the elements that play a role in the study of the propagation of harmonic currents in a distribution network
  • Explains how to determine power losses in electrical equipment attributed to harmonic waveform distortion
  • Covers harmonics from solar and wind power converters and power electronics in FACTS and HVDC technologies
  • Explores harmonics from electric vehicles connected to the grid, superconductive fault current limiters, and electric vehicle charging stations

Featuring three new chapters, a number of new examples and figures, and updates throughout, Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids, Second Edition provides a comprehensive reference on harmonic current generation, propagation, and control in electrical power networks, including the broadly cited smart grid.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. About the Author
  10. 1. Fundamentals of Harmonic Distortion and Power Quality Indices in Electric Power Systems
    1. 1.1 Introduction
    2. 1.2 Basics of Harmonic Theory
    3. 1.3 Linear and Nonlinear Loads
      1. 1.3.1 Linear Loads
      2. 1.3.2 Nonlinear Loads
    4. 1.4 Fourier Series
      1. 1.4.1 Orthogonal Functions
      2. 1.4.2 Fourier Coefficients
      3. 1.4.3 Even Functions
      4. 1.4.4 Odd Functions
      5. 1.4.5 Effect of Waveform Symmetry
      6. 1.4.6 Examples of Calculation of Harmonics Using Fourier Series
        1. 1.4.6.1 Example 1
        2. 1.4.6.2 Example 2
    5. 1.5 Power Quality Indices under Harmonic Distortion
      1. 1.5.1 Total Harmonic Distortion
      2. 1.5.2 Total Demand Distortion
      3. 1.5.3 Telephone Influence Factor (TIF)
      4. 1.5.4 C Message Index
      5. 1.5.5 I * T and V * T Products
      6. 1.5.6 K Factor
      7. 1.5.7 Displacement, Distortion, and Total Power Factor
      8. 1.5.8 Voltage-Related Parameters
    6. 1.6 Power Quantities under Nonsinusoidal Situations
      1. 1.6.1 Instantaneous Voltage and Current
      2. 1.6.2 Instantaneous Power
      3. 1.6.3 rms Values
      4. 1.6.4 Active Power
      5. 1.6.5 Reactive Power
      6. 1.6.6 Apparent Power
      7. 1.6.7 Voltage in Balanced Three-Phase Systems
      8. 1.6.8 Voltage in Unbalanced Three-Phase Systems
    7. References
  11. 2. Harmonic Sources
    1. 2.1 Introduction
    2. 2.2 The Signature of Harmonic Distortion
    3. 2.3 Traditional Harmonic Sources
      1. 2.3.1 Transformers
      2. 2.3.2 Rotating Machines
      3. 2.3.3 Power Converters
        1. 2.3.3.1 Large Power Converters
        2. 2.3.3.2 Medium-Size Power Converters
        3. 2.3.3.3 Low-Power Converters
        4. 2.3.3.4 Variable Frequency Drives
      4. 2.3.4 Fluorescent Lamps
      5. 2.3.5 Electric Furnaces
    4. 2.4 Future Sources of Harmonics
    5. References
  12. 3. Standardization of Harmonic Levels
    1. 3.1 Introduction
    2. 3.2 Harmonic Distortion Limits
      1. 3.2.1 In Agreement with IEEE 519-1992
      2. 3.2.2 In Conformance with IEC Harmonic Distortion Limits
    3. References
  13. 4. Effects of Harmonics on Distribution Systems
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Thermal Effects on Transformers
      1. 4.2.1 Neutral Conductor Overloading
    3. 4.3 Miscellaneous Effects on Capacitor Banks
      1. 4.3.1 Overstressing
      2. 4.3.2 Resonant Conditions
      3. 4.3.3 Unexpected Fuse Operation
    4. 4.4 Abnormal Operation of Electronic Relays
    5. 4.5 Lighting Devices
    6. 4.6 Telephone Interference
    7. 4.7 Thermal Effects on Rotating Machines
    8. 4.8 Pulsating Torques in Rotating Machines
    9. 4.9 Abnormal Operation of Solid-State Devices
    10. 4.10 Considerations for Cables and Equipment Operating in Harmonic Environments
      1. 4.10.1 Generators
      2. 4.10.2 Conductors
      3. 4.10.3 Energy Metering Equipment
    11. References
  14. 5. Harmonic Measurements
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Relevant Harmonic Measurement Questions
      1. 5.2.1 Why Measure Waveform Distortion?
      2. 5.2.2 How to Carry Out Measurements
      3. 5.2.3 What Is Important to Measure?
      4. 5.2.4 Where Should Harmonic Measurements Be Conducted?
      5. 5.2.5 How Long Should Measurements Last?
    3. 5.3 Measurement Procedure
      1. 5.3.1 Equipment
      2. 5.3.2 Transducers
    4. 5.4 Relevant Aspects
    5. References
  15. 6. Harmonic Filtering Techniques
    1. 6.1 Introduction
    2. 6.2 General Aspects in the Design of Passive Harmonic Filters
    3. 6.3 Single-Tuned Filters
      1. 6.3.1 Design Equations for the Single-Tuned Filter
      2. 6.3.2 Parallel Resonant Points
      3. 6.3.3 Quality Factor
      4. 6.3.4 Recommended Operation Values for Filter Components
        1. 6.3.4.1 Capacitors
        2. 6.3.4.2 Tuning Reactor
      5. 6.3.5 Unbalance Detection
      6. 6.3.6 Filter Selection and Performance Assessment
    4. 6.4 Band-Pass Filters
    5. 6.5 Relevant Aspects to Consider in the Design of Passive Filters
    6. 6.6 Methodology for Design of Tuned Harmonic Filters
      1. 6.6.1 Select Capacitor Bank Needed to Improve the Power Factor from the Present Level Typically to around 0.9 to 0.95
      2. 6.6.2 Choose a Reactor That, in Series with a Capacitor, Tunes Filter to Desired Harmonic Frequency
      3. 6.6.3 Determine Whether Capacitor Operating Parameters Fall within IEEE 18 Maximum Recommended Limits
        1. 6.6.3.1 Capacitor Voltage
        2. 6.6.3.2 Current through the Capacitor Bank
        3. 6.6.3.3 Determine the Capacitor Bank Duty and Verify That It Is within Recommended IEEE 18 Limits
      4. 6.6.4 Test Out Resonant Conditions
    7. 6.7 Example 1: Adaptation of a Power Factor Capacitor Bank into a Fifth Harmonic Filter
    8. 6.8 Example 2: Digital Simulation of Single-Tuned Harmonic Filters
    9. 6.9 Example 3: High-Pass Filter at Generator Terminals Used to Control a Resonant Condition
    10. 6.10 Example 4: Comparison between Several Harmonic Mitigating Schemes Using the University of Texas at Austin HASIP Program
    11. 6.11 Active Filters
    12. References
  16. 7. Other Methods to Decrease Harmonic Distortion Limits
    1. 7.1 Introduction
    2. 7.2 Network Topology Reconfiguration
    3. 7.3 Increase of Supply Mode Stiffness
    4. 7.4 Harmonic Cancellation through Use of Multipulse Converters
    5. 7.5 Series Reactors as Harmonic Attenuator Elements
    6. 7.6 Phase Balancing
      1. 7.6.1 Phase Voltage Unbalance
      2. 7.6.2 Effects of Unbalanced Phase Voltage
    7. Reference
  17. 8. Harmonic Analyses
    1. 8.1 Introduction
    2. 8.2 Power Frequency vs. Harmonic Current Propagation
    3. 8.3 Harmonic Source Representation
      1. 8.3.1 Time–Frequency Characteristic of the Disturbance
      2. 8.3.2 Resonant Conditions
      3. 8.3.3 Burst-Type Harmonic Representation
    4. 8.4 Harmonic Propagation Facts
    5. 8.5 Flux of Harmonic Currents
      1. 8.5.1 Modeling Philosophy
      2. 8.5.2 Single-Phase vs. Three-Phase Modeling
      3. 8.5.3 Line and Cable Models
      4. 8.5.4 Transformer Model for Harmonic Analysis
      5. 8.5.5 Power Factor Correction Capacitors
    6. 8.6 Interrelation between AC System and Load Parameters
      1. 8.6.1 Particulars of Distribution Systems
      2. 8.6.2 Some Specifics of Industrial Installations
    7. 8.7 Analysis Methods
      1. 8.7.1 Simplified Calculations
      2. 8.7.2 Simulation with Commercial Software
    8. 8.8 Examples of Harmonic Analysis
      1. 8.8.1 Harmonic Current during Transformer Energization
      2. 8.8.2 Phase A to Ground Fault
    9. References
  18. 9. Fundamentals of Power Losses in Harmonic Environments
    1. 9.1 Introduction
    2. 9.2 Meaning of Harmonic-Related Losses
    3. 9.3 Relevant Aspects of Losses in Power Apparatus and Distribution Systems
    4. 9.4 Harmonic Losses in Equipment
      1. 9.4.1 Resistive Elements
      2. 9.4.2 Transformers
        1. 9.4.2.1 Crest Factor
        2. 9.4.2.2 Harmonic Factor or Percent of Total Harmonic Distortion
        3. 9.4.2.3 K Factor
    5. 9.5 Example of Determination of K Factor
    6. 9.6 Rotating Machines
    7. References
  19. 10. The Smart Grid Concept
    1. 10.1 Introduction
    2. 10.2 Photovoltaic Power Generator
    3. 10.3 Harnessing the Wind
    4. 10.4 FACTS Technology Concept and Its Extended Adoption in Distribution Systems
    5. 10.5 High-Voltage Direct Current (HVDC) Transmission
    6. References
  20. 11. Harmonics in the Present Smart Grid Setting
    1. 11.1 Introduction
    2. 11.2 Photovoltaic Power Converters
      1. 11.2.1 Main Operation Aspects
      2. 11.2.2 Harmonic Generation in Photovoltaic Converters
      3. 11.2.3 Typical Harmonics in Photovoltaic Converters
    3. 11.3 Conventional Wind Power Converters
      1. 11.3.1 Typical Harmonics in Wind Power Converters
    4. 11.4 Power Electronics Harmonics Inherent in FACTS Technology
      1. 11.4.1 Most Common Power Frequency Components in the FACTS Technology
    5. 11.5 HVDC Harmonics and Filtering
    6. References
  21. 12. Harmonics from Latest Innovative Electric Grid Technologies
    1. 12.1 Introduction
    2. 12.2 Electric Vehicles Connected to the Grid
    3. 12.3 Superconducting Fault Current Limiters
      1. 12.3.1 Use of SCFCLs as a Means to Reduce Harmonic Sequence Currents during Faults, Leading to Wind Turbine Generator Transient Torque Reduction
    4. 12.4 Electric Vehicle Charging Stations
    5. References
  22. Index

Product Information

  • Title: Harmonics, Power Systems, and Smart Grids, 2nd Edition
  • Author(s): Francisco C. De La Rosa
  • Release date: July 2017
  • Publisher(s): CRC Press
  • ISBN: 9781351831062