Skywave over-the-horizon (OTH) radars operate in the high-frequency (HF) band (3-30 MHz) and exploit signal reflection from the ionosphere to detect and track airborne and surface targets at ranges an order of magnitude greater than is possible with conventional line-of-sight radars. More than half a century of international research and development in this area has resulted in the fielding of mature OTH radar systems capable of cost-effective early-warning surveillance over wide areas. In particular, the ability of OTH radar to persistently monitor remote geographical regions where microwave radar coverage is not feasible ...

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