R.K. Henderson, University of Edinburgh, UK
B.R. Rae, ST Microelectronics, UK
D.-U. Li, University of Strathclyde, UK
This chapter begins by reviewing the theory, techniques and applications of fluorescence lifetime sensing. It then looks at existing instrumentation and the ways in which complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (CMOS) technology has sought to complement these technologies by providing low cost, robust and miniaturised sensors with increased throughput and dynamic range. A number of pixels and sensor architectures are compared with a view to future fully-integrated, lifetime imaging systems based on CMOS sensors.