1Preliminaries, Motivation, and Related Work

1.1 What is the Internet of Things?

The Internet of Things (IoT) encapsulates a vision of a world in which billions of objects with embedded intelligence, communication means, and sensing and actuation capabilities will connect over IP (Internet Protocol) networks. Our current Internet has undergone a fundamental transition, from hardware‐driven (computers, fibers, and Ethernet cables) to market‐driven (Facebook, Amazon) opportunities. This has come about due to the interconnection of seamingly disjoint intranets with strong horizontal software capabilities. The IoT calls for open environments and an integrated architecture of interoperable platforms. Smart objects and cyber‐physical systems – or just “things” – are the new IoT entities: the objects of everyday life, augmented with micro‐controllers, optical and/or radio transceivers, sensors, actuators, and protocol stacks suitable for communication in constrained environments where target hardware has limited resources, allowing them to gather data from the environment and act upon it, and giving them an interface to the physical world. These objects can be worn by users or deployed in the environment. They are usually highly constrained, with limited memory and available energy stores, and they are subject to stringent low‐cost requirements. Data storage, processing, and analytics are fundamental requirements, necessary to enrich the raw IoT data and transform them into useful information. ...

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