2Standards

2.1 “Traditional” Internet Review

The original idea of the Internet was that of connecting multiple independent networks of rather arbitrary design. It began with the ARPANET as the pioneering packet switching network, but soon included packet satellite networks, ground‐based packet radio networks and other networks. The current Internet is based on the concept of open‐architecture networking (an excellent overview of the history of the Internet is in an article by Leiner et al. 1). According to this original approach, the choice of any individual network technology was not dictated by a particular network architecture but rather could be selected freely by a provider and made to interwork with the other networks through a meta‐level “internetworking architecture”. The use of the open systems interconnect (OSI) approach, with the use of a layer architecture, was instrumental in the design of interactions between different networks. The TCP/IP protocol suite has proven to be a phenomenally flexible and scalable networking strategy. Internet Protocol (IP) (layer three) provides only for addressing and forwarding of individual packets, while the transport control protocol (TCP; layer four), is concerned with service features such as flow control and recovery when there are lost packets. For those applications that do not need the services of TCP, the User Datagram Protocol (UDP) provides direct access to the basic service of IP.

In practice, the seven‐layer architecture ...

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