Segregating the World into Autonomous Systems

Exterior routing protocols were created to control the expansion of routing tables and to provide a more structured view of the Internet by segregating routing domains into separate administrations, called autonomous systems (ASs), which each have their own independent routing policies and unique IGPs.

During the early days of the Internet, an exterior gateway protocol called EGP[8] (not to be confused with Exterior Gateway Protocols in general) was used. The NSFNET used EGP to exchange reachability information between the backbone and the regional networks. Although the use of EGP was widely deployed, its topology restrictions and inefficiency in dealing with routing loops and setting routing policies ...

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