O'Reilly logo

Java AWT Reference by John Zukowski

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

12

Image Processing

In this chapter:

  • ImageObserver
  • ColorModel
  • ImageProducer
  • ImageConsumer
  • ImageFilter

The image processing parts of Java are buried within the java.awt.image package. The package consists of three interfaces and eleven classes, two of which are abstract. They are as follows:

  • The ImageObserver interface provides the single method necessary to support the asynchronous loading of images. The interface implementers watch the production of an image and can react when certain conditions arise. We briefly touched on ImageObserver when we discussed the Component class (in Chapter 5, Components), because Component implements the interface.
  • The ImageConsumer and ImageProducer interfaces provide the means for low level image creation. The ImageProducer provides the source of the pixel data that is used by the ImageConsumer to create an Image.
  • The PixelGrabber and ImageFilter classes, along with the AreaAveragingScaleFilter, CropImageFilter, RGBImageFilter, and ReplicateScaleFilter subclasses, provide the tools for working with images. PixelGrabber consumes pixels from an Image into an array. The ImageFilter classes modify an existing image to produce another Image instance. CropImageFilter makes smaller images; RGBImageFilter alters pixel colors, while AreaAveragingScaleFilter and ReplicateScaleFilter scale images up and down using different algorithms. All of these classes implement ImageConsumer because they take pixel data as input.
  • MemoryImageSource and FilteredImageSource produce new images. MemoryImageSource takes an array and creates an image from it. FilteredImageSource uses an ImageFilter to read and modify data from another image and produces the new image based on the original. Both MemoryImageSource and FilteredImageSource implement ImageProducer because they produce new pixel data.
  • ColorModel and its subclasses, DirectColorModel and IndexColorModel, provide the palette of colors available when creating an image or tell you the palette used when using PixelGrabber.

The classes in the java.awt.image package let you create Image objects at runtime. These classes can be used to rotate images, make images transparent, create image viewers for unsupported graphics formats, and more.

12.1 ImageObserver

As you may recall from Chapter 2, Simple Graphics, the last parameter to the drawImage() method is the image's ImageObserver. However, in Chapter 2 I also said that you can use this as the image observer and forget about it. Now it's time to ask the obvious questions: what is an image observer, and what is it for?

Because getImage() acquires an image asynchronously, the entire Image object might not be fully loaded when drawImage() is called. The ImageObserver interface provides the means for a component to be told asynchronously when additional information about the image is available. The Component class implements the imageUpdate() method (the sole method of the ImageObserver interface), so that method is inherited by any component that renders an image. Therefore, when you call drawImage(), you can pass this as the final argument; the component on which you are drawing serves as the ImageObserver for the drawing process. The communication between the image observer and the image consumer happens behind the scenes; you never have to worry about it, unless you want to write your own imageUpdate() method that does something special as the image is being loaded.

If you call drawImage() to display an image created in local memory (either for double buffering or from a MemoryImageSource), you can set the ImageObserver parameter of drawImage() to null because no asynchrony is involved; the entire image is available immediately, so an ImageObserver isn't needed.

12.1.1 ImageObserver Interface

Constants

The various flags associated with the ImageObserver are used for the infoflags argument to imageUpdate(). The flags indicate what kind of information is available and how to interpret the other arguments to imageUpdate(). Two or more flags are often combined (by an OR operation) to show that several kinds of information are available.

public static final int WIDTH

When the WIDTH flag is set, the width argument to imageUpdate() correctly indicates the image's width. Subsequent calls to getWidth() for the Image return the valid image width. If you call getWidth() before this flag is set, expect it to return -1.

public static final int HEIGHT

When the HEIGHT flag is set, the height argument to imageUpdate() correctly indicates the image's height. Subsequent calls to getHeight() for the Image return the valid image height. If you call getHeight() before this flag is set, expect it to return -1.

public static final int PROPERTIES

When the PROPERTIES flag is set, the image's properties are available. Subsequent calls to getProperty() return valid image properties.

public static final int SOMEBITS

When the SOMEBITS flag of infoflags (from imageUpdate()) is set, the image has started loading and at least some of its content are available for display. When this flag is set, the x, y, width, and height arguments to imageUpdate() indicate the bounding rectangle for the portion of the image that has been delivered so far.

public static final int FRAMEBITS

When the FRAMEBITS flag of infoflags is set, a complete frame of a multiframe image has been loaded and can be drawn. The remaining parameters to imageUpdate() should be ignored (x, y, width, height).

public static final int ALLBITS

When the ALLBITS flag of infoflags is set, the image has been completely loaded and can be drawn. The remaining parameters to imageUpdate() should be ignored (x, y, width, height).

public static final int ERROR

When the ERROR flag is set, the production of the image has stopped prior to completion because of a severe problem. ABORT may or may not be set when ERROR is set. Attempts to reload the image will fail. You might get an ERROR because the URL of the Image is invalid (file not found) or the image file itself is invalid (invalid size/content).

public static final int ABORT

When the ABORT flag is set, the production of the image has aborted prior to completion. If ERROR is not set, a subsequent attempt to draw the image may succeed. For example, an image would abort without an error if a network error occurred (e.g., a timeout on the HTTP connection).

Method

public boolean imageUpdate (Image image, int infoflags, int x, int y, int width, int height)

The imageUpdate() method is the sole method in the ImageObserver interface. It is called whenever information about an image becomes available. To register an image observer for an image, pass an object that implements the ImageObserver interface to getWidth(), getHeight(), getProperty(), prepareImage(), or drawImage().

The image parameter to imageUpdate() is the image being rendered on the Observer. The infoflags parameter is a set of ImageObserver flags ORed together to signify the current information available about image. The meaning of the x, y, width, and height parameters depends on the current infoflags settings.

Implementations of imageUpdate() should return true if additional information about the image is desired; returning false means that you don't want any additional information, and consequently, imageUpdate() should not be called in the future for this image. The default imageUpdate() method returns true if neither ABORT nor ALLBITS are set in the infoflags—that is, the method imageUpdate() is interested in further information if no errors have occurred and the image is not complete. If either flag is set, imageUpdate() returns false.

You should not call imageUpdate() directly—unless you are developing an ImageConsumer, in which case you may find it worthwhile to override the default imageUpdate() method, which all components inherit from the Component class.

12.1.2 Overriding imageUpdate

Instead of bothering with the MediaTracker class, you can override the imageUpdate() method and use it to notify you when an image is completely loaded. Example 12-1 demonstrates the use of imageUpdate(), along with a way to force your images to load immediately. Here's how it works: the init() method calls getImage() to request image loading at some time in the future. Instead of waiting for drawImage() to trigger the loading process, init() forces loading to start by calling prepareImage(), which also registers an image observer. prepareImage() is a method of the Component class discussed in Chapter 5.

The paint() method doesn't attempt to draw the image until the variable loaded is set to true. The imageUpdate() method checks the infoflags argument to see whether ALLBITS is set; when it is set, imageUpdate() sets loaded to true, and schedules a call to paint(). Thus, paint() doesn't call drawImage() until the method imageUpdate() has discovered that the image is fully loaded.

Example 12–1: imageUpdate Override.

import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.ImageObserver;
public class imageUpdateOver extends Applet {
    Image image;
    boolean loaded = false;
    public void init () {
        image = getImage (getDocumentBase(), "rosey.jpg");
        prepareImage (image, -1, -1, this);
    }
    public void paint (Graphics g) {
        if (loaded)
            g.drawImage (image, 0, 0, this);
    }
    public void update (Graphics g) {
        paint (g);
    }
    public synchronized boolean imageUpdate (Image image, int infoFlags,
                        int x, int y, int width, int height) {
        if ((infoFlags & ImageObserver.ALLBITS) != 0) {
            loaded = true;
            repaint();
            return false;
        } else {
            return true;
        }
    }
}

Note that the call to prepareImage() is absolutely crucial. It is needed both to start image loading and to register the image observer. If prepareImage() were omitted, imageUpdate() would never be called, loaded would not be set, and paint() would never attempt to draw the image. As an alternative, you could use the MediaTracker class to force loading to start and monitor the loading process; that approach might give you some additional flexibility.

12.2 ColorModel

A color model determines how colors are represented within AWT. ColorModel is an abstract class that you can subclass to specify your own representation for colors. AWT provides two concrete subclasses of ColorModel that you can use to build your own color model; they are DirectColorModel and IndexColorModel. These two correspond to the two ways computers represent colors internally.

Most modern computer systems use 24 bits to represent each pixel. These 24 bits contain 8 bits for each primary color (red, green, blue); each set of 8 bits represents the intensity of that color for the particular pixel. This arrangement yields the familiar “16 million colors” that you see in advertisements. It corresponds closely to Java's direct color model.

However, 24 bits per pixel, with something like a million pixels on the screen, adds up to a lot of memory. In the dark ages, memory was expensive, and devoting this much memory to a screen buffer cost too much. Therefore, designers used fewer bits—possibly as few as three, but more often eight—for each pixel. Instead of representing the colors directly in these bits, the bits were an index into a color map. Graphics programs would load the color map with the colors they were interested in and then represent each pixel by using the index of the appropriate color in the map. For example, the value 1 might represent fuschia; the value 2 might represent puce. Full information about how to display each color (the red, green, and blue components that make up fuschia or puce) is contained only in the color map. This arrangement corresponds closely to Java's indexed color model.

Because Java is platform-independent, you don't need to worry about how your computer or the user's computer represents colors. Your programs can use an indexed or direct color map as appropriate. Java will do the best it can to render the colors you request. Of course, if you use 5,000 colors on a computer that can only display 256, Java is going to have to make compromises. It will decide which colors to put in the color map and which colors are close enough to the colors in the color map, but that's done behind your back.

Java's default color model uses 8 bits per pixel for red, green, and blue, along with another 8 bits for alpha (transparency) level. However, as I said earlier, you can create your own ColorModel if you want to work in some other scheme. For example, you could create a grayscale color model for black and white pictures, or an HSB (hue, saturation, brightness) color model if you are more comfortable working with this system. Your color model's job will be to take a pixel value in your representation and translate that value into the corresponding alpha, red, green, and blue values. If you are working with a grayscale image, your image producer could deliver grayscale values to the image consumer, plus a ColorModel that tells the consumer how to render these gray values in terms of ARGB components.

12.2.1 ColorModel Methods

Constructors

public ColorModel (int bits)

There is a single constructor for ColorModel. It has one parameter, bits, which describes the number of bits required per pixel of an image. Since this is an abstract class, you cannot call this constructor directly. Since each pixel value must be stored within an integer, the maximum value for bits is 32. If you request more, you get 32.

Pseudo -constructors

public static ColorModel getRGBdefault()

The getRGBdefault() method returns the default ColorModel, which has 8 bits for each of the components alpha, red, green, and blue. The order the pixels are stored in an integer is 0xAARRGGBB, or alpha in highest order byte, down to blue in the lowest.

Other methods

public int getPixelSize ()

The getPixelSize() method returns the number of bits required for each pixel as described by this color model. That is, it returns the number of bits passed to the constructor.

public abstract int getAlpha (int pixel)

The getAlpha() method returns the alpha component of pixel for a color model. Its range must be between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel is completely transparent and the background will appear through the pixel. A value of 255 means the pixel is opaque and you cannot see the background behind it.

public abstract int getRed (int pixel)

The getRed() method returns the red component of pixel for a color model. Its range must be between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no red in it. A value of 255 means red is at maximum intensity.

public abstract int getGreen (int pixel)

The getGreen() method returns the green component of pixel for a color model. Its range must be between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no green in it. A value of 255 means green is at maximum intensity.

public abstract int getBlue (int pixel)

The getBlue() method returns the blue component of pixel for a color model. Its range must be between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no blue in it. A value of 255 means blue is at maximum intensity.

public int getRGB(int pixel)

The getRGB() method returns the color of pixel in the default RGB color model. If a subclass has changed the ordering or size of the different color components, getRGB() will return the pixel in the RGB color model (0xAARRGGBB order). In theory, the subclass does not need to override this method, unless it wants to make it final. Making this method final may yield a significant performance improvement.

public void finalize ()

The garbage collector calls finalize() when it determines that the ColorModel object is no longer needed. finalize() frees any internal resources that the ColorModel object has used.

12.2.2 DirectColorModel

The DirectColorModel class is a concrete subclass of ColorModel. It specifies a color model in which each pixel contains all the color information (alpha, red, green, and blue values) explicitly. Pixels are represented by 32-bit (int) quantities; the constructor lets you change which bits are allotted to each component.

All of the methods in this class, except constructors, are final, because of assumptions made by the implementation. You can create subclasses of DirectColorModel, but you can't override any of its methods. However, you should not need to develop your own subclass. Just create an instance of DirectColorModel with the appropriate constructor. Any subclassing results in serious performance degradation, because you are going from fast, static final method calls to dynamic method lookups.

Constructors

public DirectColorModel (int bits, int redMask, int greenMask, int blueMask, int alphaMask)

This constructor creates a DirectColorModel in which bits represents the total number of bits used to represent a pixel; it must be less than or equal to 32. The redMask, greenMask, blueMask, and alphaMask specify where in a pixel each color component exists. Each of the bit masks must be contiguous (e.g., red cannot be the first, fourth, and seventh bits of the pixel), must be smaller than 2bits, and should not exceed 8 bits. (You cannot display more than 8 bits of data for any color component, but the mask can be larger.) Combined, the masks together should be bits in length. The default RGB color model is:

new DirectColorModel (32, 0x00ff0000, 0x0000ff00, 0x000000ff, 0xff000000)

The run-time exception IllegalArgumentException is thrown if any of the following occur:

  • The bits that are set in a mask are not contiguous.
  • Mask bits overlap (i.e., the same bit is set in two or more masks).
  • The number of mask bits exceeds bits.

public DirectColorModel (int bits, int redMask, int greenMask, int blueMask)

This constructor for DirectColorModel calls the first with an alpha mask of 0, which means that colors in this color model have no transparency component. All colors will be fully opaque with an alpha value of 255. The same restrictions for the red, green, and blue masks apply.

Methods

final public int getAlpha (int pixel)

The getAlpha() method returns the alpha component of pixel for the color model as a number from 0 to 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel is completely transparent, and the background will appear through the pixel. A value of 255 means the pixel is opaque, and you cannot see the background behind it.

final public int getRed (int pixel)

The getRed() method returns the red component of pixel for the color model. Its range is from 0 to 255. A value of 0 means the pixel has no red in it. A value of 255 means red is at maximum intensity.

final public int getGreen (int pixel)

The getGreen() method returns the green component of pixel for the color model. Its range is from 0 to 255. A value of 0 means the pixel has no green in it. A value of 255 means green is at maximum intensity.

final public int getBlue (int pixel)

The getBlue() method returns the blue component of pixel for the color model. Its range is from 0 to 255. A value of 0 means the pixel has no blue in it. A value of 255 means blue is at maximum intensity.

final public int getRGB (int pixel)

The getRGB() method returns the color of pixel in the default RGB color model. If a subclass has changed the ordering or size of the different color components, getRGB() will return the pixel in the RGB color model (0xAARRGGBB order). The getRGB() method in this subclass is identical to the method in ColorModel but overrides it to make it final.

Other methods

final public int getAlphaMask ()

The getAlphaMask() method returns the alphaMask from the DirectColorModel constructor (or 0 if constructor did not have alphaMask). The alphaMask specifies which bits in the pixel represent the alpha transparency component of the color model.

final public int getRedMask ()

The getRedMask() method returns the redMask from the DirectColorModel constructor. The redMask specifies which bits in the pixel represent the red component of the color model.

final public int getGreenMask ()

The getGreenMask() method returns the greenMask from the DirectColorModel constructor. The greenMask specifies which bits in the pixel represent the green component of the color model.

final public int getBlueMask ()

The getBlueMask() method returns the blueMask from the DirectColorModel constructor. The blueMask specifies which bits in the pixel represent the blue component of the color model.

12.2.3 IndexColorModel

The IndexColorModel is another concrete subclass of ColorModel. It specifies a ColorModel that uses a color map lookup table (with a maximum size of 256), rather than storing color information in the pixels themselves. Pixels are represented by an index into the color map, which is at most an 8-bit quantity. Each entry in the color map gives the alpha, red, green, and blue components of some color. One entry in the map can be designated “transparent.” This is called the “transparent pixel”; the alpha component of this map entry is ignored.

All of the methods in this class, except constructors, are final because of assumptions made by the implementation. You shouldn't need to create subclasses; you can if necessary, but you can't override any of the IndexColorModel methods. Example 12-2 (later in this chapter) uses an IndexColorModel.

Constructors

There are two sets of constructors for IndexColorModel. The first two constructors use a single-byte array for the color map. The second group implements the color map with separate byte arrays for each color component.

public IndexColorModel (int bits, int size, byte colorMap[], int start, boolean hasalpha, int transparent)

This constructor creates an IndexColorModel. bits is the number of bits used to represent each pixel and must not exceed 8. size is the number of elements in the map; it must be less than 2bits. hasalpha should be true if the color map includes alpha (transparency) components and false if it doesn't. transparent is the location of the transparent pixel in the map (i.e., the pixel value that is considered transparent). If there is no transparent pixel, set transparent to -1.

The colorMap describes the colors used to paint pixels. start is the index within the colorMap array at which the map begins; prior elements of the array are ignored. An entry in the map consists of three or four consecutive bytes, representing the red, green, blue, and (optionally) alpha components. If hasalpha is false, a map entry consists of three bytes, and no alpha components are present; if hasalpha is true, map entries consist of four bytes, and all four components must be present.

For example, consider a pixel whose value is p, and a color map with a hasalpha set to false. Therefore, each element in the color map occupies three consecutive array elements. The red component of that pixel will be located at colorMap[start + 3*p]; the green component will be at colorMap[start + 3*p + 1]; and so on. The value of size may be smaller than 2bits, meaning that there may be pixel values with no corresponding entry in the color map. These pixel values (i.e., size ≤ p < 2bits) are painted with the color components set to 0; they are transparent if hasalpha is true, opaque otherwise. If bits is too large (greater than 8), size is too large (greater than 2bits), or the colorMap array is too small to hold the map, the run-time exception ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException will be thrown.

public IndexColorModel (int bits, int size, byte colorMap[], int start, boolean hasalpha)

This version of the IndexColorModel constructor calls the previous constructor with a transparent index of -1; that is, there is no transparent pixel. If bits is too large (greater than 8), or size is too large (greater than 2bits), or the colorMap array is too small to hold the map, the run-time exception, ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException will be thrown.

public IndexColorModel (int bits, int size, byte red[], byte green[], byte blue[], int transparent)

The second set of constructors for IndexColorModel is similar to the first group, with the exception that these constructors use three or four separate arrays (one per color component) to represent the color map, instead of a single array.

The bits parameter still represents the number of bits in a pixel. size represents the number of elements in the color map. transparent is the location of the transparent pixel in the map (i.e., the pixel value that is considered transparent). If there is no transparent pixel, set transparent to -1.

The red, green, and blue arrays contain the color map itself. These arrays must have at least size elements. They contain the red, green, and blue components of the colors in the map. For example, if a pixel is at position p, red[p] contains the pixel's red component; green[p] contains the green component; and blue[p] contains the blue component. The value of size may be smaller than 2bits, meaning that there may be pixel values with no corresponding entry in the color map. These pixel values (i.e., size ≤ p < 2bits) are painted with the color components set to 0. If bits is too large (greater than 8), size is too large (greater than 2bits), or the red, green, and blue arrays are too small to hold the map, the run-time exception ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException will be thrown.

public IndexColorModel (int bits, int size, byte red[], byte green[], byte blue[])

This version of the IndexColorModel constructor calls the previous one with a transparent index of -1; that is, there is no transparent pixel. If bits is too large (greater than 8), size is too large (greater than 2bits), or the red, green, and blue arrays are too small to hold the map, the run-time exception ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException will be thrown.

public IndexColorModel (int bits, int size, byte red[], byte green[], byte blue[], byte alpha[])

Like the previous constructor, this version creates an IndexColorModel with no transparent pixel. It differs from the previous constructor in that it supports transparency; the array alpha contains the map's transparency values. If bits is too large (greater than 8), size is too large (greater than 2bits), or the red, green, blue, and alpha arrays are too small to hold the map, the run-time exception ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException will be thrown.

Methods

final public int getAlpha (int pixel)

The getAlpha() method returns the alpha component of pixel for a color model, which is a number between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel is completely transparent and the background will appear through the pixel. A value of 255 means the pixel is opaque and you cannot see the background behind it.

final public int getRed (int pixel)

The getRed() method returns the red component of pixel for a color model, which is a number between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no red in it. A value of 255 means red is at maximum intensity.

final public int getGreen (int pixel)

The getGreen() method returns the green component of pixel for a color model, which is a number between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no green in it. A value of 255 means green is at maximum intensity.

final public int getBlue (int pixel)

The getBlue() method returns the blue component of pixel for a color model, which is a number between 0 and 255, inclusive. A value of 0 means the pixel has no blue in it. A value of 255 means blue is at maximum intensity.

final public int getRGB (int pixel)

The getRGB() method returns the color of pixel in the default RGB color model. If a subclass has changed the ordering or size of the different color components, getRGB() will return the pixel in the RGB color model (0xAARRGGBB order). This version of getRGB is identical to the version in the ColorModel class but overrides it to make it final.

Other methods

final public int getMapSize()

The getMapSize() method returns the size of the color map (i.e., the number of distinct colors).

final public int getTransparentPixel ()

The getTransparentPixel() method returns the color map index for the transparent pixel in the color model. If no transparent pixel exists, it returns -1. It is not possible to change the transparent pixel after the color model has been created.

final public void getAlphas (byte alphas[])

The getAlphas() method copies the alpha components of the ColorModel into elements 0 through getMapSize()-1 of the alphas array. Space must already be allocated in the alphas array.

final public void getReds (byte reds[])

The getReds() method copies the red components of the ColorModel into elements 0 through getMapSize()-1 of the reds array. Space must already be allocated in the reds array.

final public void getGreens (byte greens[])

The getGreens() method copies the green components of the ColorModel into elements 0 through getMapSize()-1 of the greens array. Space must already be allocated in the greens array.

final public void getBlues (byte blues[])

The getBlues() method copies the blue components of the ColorModel into elements 0 through getMapSize()-1 of the blues array. Space must already be allocated in the blues array.

12.3 ImageProducer

The ImageProducer interface defines the methods that ImageProducer objects must implement. Image producers serve as sources for pixel data; they may compute the data themselves or interpret data from some external source, like a GIF file. No matter how it generates the data, an image producer's job is to hand that data to an image consumer, which usually renders the data on the screen. The methods in the ImageProducer interface let ImageConsumer objects register their interest in an image. The business end of an ImageProducer—that is, the methods it uses to deliver pixel data to an image consumer—are defined by the ImageConsumer interface. Therefore, we can summarize the way an image producer works as follows:

  • It waits for image consumers to register their interest in an image.
  • As image consumers register, it stores them in a Hashtable, Vector, or some other collection mechanism.
  • As image data becomes available, it loops through all the registered consumers and calls their methods to transfer the data.

There's a sense in which you have to take this process on faith; image consumers are usually well hidden. If you call createImage(), an image consumer will eventually show up.

Every Image has an ImageProducer associated with it; to acquire a reference to the producer, use the getSource() method of Image.

Because an ImageProducer must call methods in the ImageConsumer interface, we won't show an example of a full-fledged producer until we have discussed ImageConsumer.

12.3.1 ImageProducer Interface

Methods

public void addConsumer (ImageConsumer ic)

The addConsumer() method registers ic as an ImageConsumer interested in the Image information. Once an ImageConsumer is registered, the ImageProducer can deliver Image pixels immediately or wait until startProduction() has been called.

Note that one image may have many consumers; therefore, addConsumer() usually stores image consumers in a collection like a Vector or Hashtable. There is one notable exception: if the producer has the image data in memory, addConsumer() can deliver the image to the consumer immediately. When addConsumer() returns, it has finished with the consumer. In this case, you don't need to manage a list of consumers, because there is only one image consumer at a time. (In this case, addConsumer() should be implemented as a synchronized method.)

public boolean isConsumer (ImageConsumer ic)

The isConsumer() method checks to see if ic is a registered ImageConsumer for this ImageProducer. If ic is registered, true is returned. If ic is not registered, false is returned.

public void removeConsumer (ImageConsumer ic)

The removeConsumer() method removes ic as a registered ImageConsumer for this ImageProducer. If ic was not a registered ImageConsumer, nothing should happen. This is not an error that should throw an exception. Once ic has been removed from the registry, the ImageProducer should no longer send data to it.

public void startProduction (ImageConsumer ic)

The startProduction() method registers ic as an ImageConsumer interested in the Image information and tells the ImageProducer to start sending the Image data immediately. The ImageProducer sends the image data to ic and all other registered ImageConsumer objects, through addConsumer().

public void requestTopDownLeftRightResend (ImageConsumer ic)

The requestTopDownLeftRightResend() method is called by the ImageConsumer ic requesting that the ImageProducer retransmit the Image data in topdown, left-to-right order. If the ImageProducer is unable to send the data in that order or always sends the data in that order (like with MemoryImageSource), it can ignore the call.

12.3.2 FilteredImageSource

The FilteredImageSource class combines an ImageProducer and an ImageFilter to create a new Image. The image producer generates pixel data for an original image. The FilteredImageSource takes this data and uses an ImageFilter to produce a modified version: the image may be scaled, clipped, or rotated, or the colors shifted, etc. The FilteredImageSource is the image producer for the new image. The ImageFilter object transforms the original image's data to yield the new image; it implements the ImageConsumer interface. We cover the ImageConsumer interface in Section 12.4 and the ImageFilter class in Section 12.5. Figure 12-1 shows the relationship between an ImageProducer, FilteredImageSource, ImageFilter, and the ImageConsumer.

images

Figure 12–1: Image producers, filters, and consumers

Constructors

public FilteredImageSource (ImageProducer original, ImageFilter filter)

The FilteredImageSource constructor creates an image producer that combines an image, original, and a filter, filter, to create a new image. The ImageProducer of the original image is the constructor's first parameter; given an Image, you can acquire its ImageProducer by using the getSource() method. The following code shows how to create a new image from an original. Section 12.5 shows several extensive examples of image filters.

Image image = getImage (new URL
        ("http://www.ora.com/graphics/headers/homepage.gif"));
Image newOne = createImage (new FilteredImageSource
        (image.getSource(), new SomeImageFilter()));

ImageProducer interface methods

The ImageProducer interface methods maintain an internal table for the image consumers. Since this is private, you do not have direct access to it.

public synchronized void addConsumer (ImageConsumer ic)

The addConsumer() method adds ic as an ImageConsumer interested in the pixels for this image.

public synchronized boolean isConsumer (ImageConsumer ic)

The isConsumer() method checks to see if ic is a registered ImageConsumer for this ImageProducer. If ic is registered, true is returned. If not registered, false is returned.

public synchronized void removeConsumer (ImageConsumer ic)

The removeConsumer() method removes ic as a registered ImageConsumer for this ImageProducer.

public void startProduction (ImageConsumer ic)

The startProduction() method registers ic as an ImageConsumer interested in the Image information and tells the ImageProducer to start sending the Image data immediately.

public void requestTopDownLeftRightResend (ImageConsumer ic)

The requestTopDownLeftRightResend() method registers ic as an ImageConsumer interested in the Image information and requests the ImageProducer to retransmit the Image data in top-down, left-to-right order.

12.3.3 MemoryImageSource

The MemoryImageSource class allows you to create images completely in memory; you generate pixel data, place it in an array, and hand that array and a ColorModel to the MemoryImageSource constructor. The MemoryImageSource is an image producer that can be used with a consumer to display the image on the screen. For example, you might use a MemoryImageSource to display a Mandelbrot image or some other image generated by your program. You could also use a MemoryImageSource to modify a pre-existing image; use PixelGrabber to get the image's pixel data, modify that data, and then use a MemoryImageSource as the producer for the modified image. Finally, you can use MemoryImageSource to simplify implementation of a new image type; you can develop a class that reads an image in some unsupported format from a local file or the network; interprets the image file and puts pixel data into an array; and uses a MemoryImageSource to serve as an image producer. This is simpler than implementing an image producer yourself, but it isn't quite as flexible; you lose the ability to display partial images as the data becomes available.

In Java 1.1, MemoryImageSource supports multiframe images to animate a sequence. In earlier versions, it was necessary to create a dynamic ImageFilter to animate the image.

Constructors

There are six constructors for MemoryImageSource, each with slightly different parameters. They all create an image producer that delivers some array of data to an image consumer. The constructors are:

public MemoryImageSource (int w, int h, ColorModel cm, byte pix[], int off, int scan)

public MemoryImageSource (int w, int h, ColorModel cm, byte pix[], int off, int scan, Hashtable props)

public MemoryImageSource (int w, int h, ColorModel cm, int pix[], int off, int scan)

public MemoryImageSource (int w, int h, ColorModel cm, int pix[], int off, int scan, Hashtable props)

public MemoryImageSource (int w, int h, int pix[], int off, int scan)

public MemoryImageSource (int w, int h, int pix[], int off, int scan, Hashtable props)

The parameters that might be present are:

w Width of the image being created, in pixels.
h Height of the image being created, in pixels.
cm The ColorModel that describes the color representation used in the pixel data. If this parameter is not present, the MemoryImageSource uses the default RGB color model (ColorModel.getRGBDefault()).
pix[] The array of pixel information to be converted into an image. This may be either a byte array or an int array, depending on the color model. If you're using a direct color model (including the default RGB color model), pix is usually an int array; if it isn't, it won't be able to represent all 16 million possible colors. If you're using an indexed color model, the array should be a byte array. However, if you use an int array with an indexed color model, the MemoryImageSource ignores the three high-order bytes because an indexed color model has at most 256 entries in the color map. In general: if your color model requires more than 8 bits of data per pixel, use an int array; if it requires 8 bits or less, use a byte array.
off The first pixel used in the array (usually 0); prior pixels are ignored.
scan The number of pixels per line in the array (usually equal to w). The number of pixels per scan line in the array may be larger than the number of pixels in the scan line. Extra pixels in the array are ignored.
props A Hashtable of the properties associated with the image. If this argument isn't present, the constructor assumes there are no properties.

The pixel at location (x, y) in the image is located at pix[y * scan + x + off].

ImageProducer interface methods

In Java 1.0, the ImageProducer interface methods maintain a single internal variable for the image consumer because the image is delivered immediately and synchronously. There is no need to worry about multiple consumers; as soon as one registers, you give it the image, and you're done. These methods keep track of this single ImageConsumer.

In Java 1.1, MemoryImageSource supports animation. One consequence of this new feature is that it isn't always possible to deliver all the image's data immediately. Therefore, the class maintains a list of image consumers that are notified when each frame is generated. Since this list is private, you do not have direct access to it.

public synchronized void addConsumer (ImageConsumer ic)

The addConsumer() method adds ic as an ImageConsumer interested in the pixels for this image.

public synchronized boolean isConsumer (ImageConsumer ic)

The isConsumer() method checks to see if ic is a registered ImageConsumer for this ImageProducer. If ic is registered, true is returned. If ic is not registered, false is returned.

public synchronized void removeConsumer (ImageConsumer ic)

The removeConsumer() method removes ic as a registered ImageConsumer for this ImageProducer.

public void startProduction (ImageConsumer ic)

The startProduction() method calls addConsumer().

public void requestTopDownLeftRightResend (ImageConsumer ic)

The requestTopDownLeftRightResend() method does nothing since in-memory images are already in this format or are multiframed, with each frame in this format.

Animation methods

In Java 1.1, MemoryImageSource supports animation; it can now pass multiple frames to interested image consumers. This feature mimics GIF89a's multiframe functionality. (If you have GIF89a animations, you can display them using getImage() and drawImage(); you don't have to build a complicated creature using MemoryImageSource.). An animation example follows in Example 12-3 (later in this chapter).

public synchronized void setAnimated(boolean animated) images

The setAnimated() method notifies the MemoryImageSource if it will be in animation mode (animated is true) or not (animated is false). By default, animation is disabled; you must call this method to generate an image sequence. To prevent losing data, call this method immediately after calling the MemoryImageSource constructor.

public synchronized void setFullBufferUpdates(boolean fullBuffers) images

The setFullBufferUpdates() method controls how image updates are done during an animation. It is ignored if you are not creating an animation. If fullBuffers is true, this method tells the MemoryImageSource that it should always send all of an image's data to the consumers whenever it received new data (by a call to newPixels()). If fullBuffers is false, the MemoryImageSource sends only the changed portion of the image and notifies consumers (by a call to ImageConsumer.setHints()) that frames sent will be complete.

Like setAnimated(), setFullBufferUpdates() should be called immediately after calling the MemoryImageSource constructor, before the animation is started.

To do the actual animation, you update the image array pix[] that was specified in the constructor and call one of the overloaded newPixels() methods to tell the MemoryImageSource that you have changed the image data. The parameters to newPixels() determine whether you are animating the entire image or just a portion of the image. You can also supply a new array to take pixel data from, replacing pix[]. In any case, pix[] supplies the initial image data (i.e., the first frame of the animation).

If you have not called setAnimated(true), calls to any version of newPixels() are ignored.

public void newPixels() images

The version of newPixels() with no parameters tells the MemoryImageSource to send the entire pixel data (frame) to all the registered image consumers again. Data is taken from the original array pix[]. After the data is sent, the MemoryImageSource notifies consumers that a frame is complete by calling imageComplete(ImageConsumer.SINGLEFRAMEDONE), thus updating the display when the image is redisplayed. Remember that in many cases, you don't need to update the entire image; updating part of the image saves CPU time, which may be crucial for your application. To update part of the image, call one of the other versions of newPixels().

public synchronized void newPixels(int x, int y, int w, int h) images

This newPixels() method sends part of the image in the array pix[] to the consumers. The portion of the image sent has its upper left corner at the point (x, y), width w and height h, all in pixels. Changing part of the image rather than the whole thing saves considerably on system resources. Obviously, it is appropriate only if most of the image is still. For example, you could use this method to animate the steam rising from a cup of hot coffee, while leaving the cup itself static (an image that should be familiar to anyone reading JavaSoft's Web site). After the data is sent, consumers are notified that a frame is complete by a call to imageComplete(ImageConsumer.SINGLEFRAMEDONE), thus updating the display when the image is redisplayed.

If setFullBufferUpdates() was called, the entire image is sent, and the dimensions of the bounding box are ignored.

public synchronized void newPixels(int x, int y, int w, int h, boolean frameNotify) images

This newPixels() method is identical to the last, with one exception: consumers are notified that new image data is available only when frameNotify is true. This method allows you to generate new image data in pieces, updating the consumers only once when you are finished.

If setFullBufferUpdates() was called, the entire image is sent, and the dimensions of the bounding box are ignored.

public synchronized void newPixels(byte[] newpix, ColorModel newmodel, int offset, int scansize) images

public synchronized void newPixels(int[] newpix, ColorModel newmodel, int offset, int scansize) images

These newPixels() methods change the source of the animation to the byte or int array newpix[], with a ColorModel of newmodel. offset marks the beginning of the data in newpix to use, while scansize states the number of pixels in newpix per line of Image data. Future calls to other versions of newPixels() should modify newpix[] rather than pix[].

Using MemoryImageSource to create a static image

You can create an image by generating an integer or byte array in memory and converting it to an image with MemoryImageSource. The following MemoryImage applet generates two identical images that display a series of color bars from left to right. Although the images look the same, they were generated differently: the image on the left uses the default DirectColorModel; the image on the right uses an IndexColorModel.

Because the image on the left uses a DirectColorModel, it stores the actual color value of each pixel in an array of integers (rgbPixels[]). The image on the right can use a byte array (indPixels[]) because the IndexColorModel puts the color information in its color map instead of the pixel array; elements of the pixel array need to be large enough only to address the entries in this map. Images that are based on IndexColorModel are generally more efficient in their use of space (integer vs. byte arrays, although IndexColorModel requires small support arrays) and in performance (if you filter the image).

The output from this example is shown in Figure 12-2. The source is shown in Example 12-2.

images

Figure 12–2: MemoryImage applet output

Example 12–2: MemoryImage Test Program

import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.*;
public class MemoryImage extends Applet {
    Image i, j;
    int width = 200;
    int height = 200;
    public void init () {
        int rgbPixels[] = new int [width*height];
        byte indPixels[] = new byte [width*height];
        int index = 0;
        Color colorArray[] = {Color.red, Color.orange, Color.yellow,
                Color.green, Color.blue, Color.magenta};
        int rangeSize = width / colorArray.length;
        int colorRGB;
        byte colorIndex;
        byte reds[] = new byte[colorArray.length];
        byte greens[] = new byte[colorArray.length];
        byte blues[] = new byte[colorArray.length];
        for (int i=0;i<colorArray.length;i++) {
            reds[i] = (byte)colorArray[i].getRed();
            greens[i] = (byte)colorArray[i].getGreen();
            blues[i] = (byte)colorArray[i].getBlue();
        }
        for (int y=0;y<height;y++) {
            for (int x=0;x<width;x++) {
                if (x < rangeSize) {
                    colorRGB = Color.red.getRGB();
                    colorIndex = 0;
                } else if (x < (rangeSize*2)) {
colorRGB = Color.orange.getRGB();
                    colorIndex = 1;
                } else if (x < (rangeSize*3)) {
                    colorRGB = Color.yellow.getRGB();
                    colorIndex = 2;
                } else if (x < (rangeSize*4)) {
                    colorRGB = Color.green.getRGB();
                    colorIndex = 3;
                } else if (x < (rangeSize*5)) {
                    colorRGB = Color.blue.getRGB();
                    colorIndex = 4;
                } else {
                    colorRGB = Color.magenta.getRGB();
                    colorIndex = 5;
                }
                rgbPixels[index] = colorRGB;
                indPixels[index] = colorIndex;
                index++;
            }
        }
        i = createImage (new MemoryImageSource (width, height, rgbPixels,
            0, width));
        j = createImage (new MemoryImageSource (width, height,
            new IndexColorModel (8, colorArray.length, reds, greens, blues),
            indPixels, 0, width));
    }
    public void paint (Graphics g) {
        g.drawImage (i, 0, 0, this);
        g.drawImage (j, width+5, 0, this);
    }
}

Almost all of the work is done in init() (which, in a real applet, isn't a terribly good idea; ideally init() should be lightweight). Previously, we explained the color model's use for the images on the left and the right. Toward the end of init(), we create the images i and j by calling createImage() with a MemoryImageSource as the image producer. For image i, we used the simplest MemoryImageSource constructor, which uses the default RGB color model. For j, we called the IndexColorModel constructor within the MemoryImageSource constructor, to create a color map that has only six entries: one for each of the colors we use.

Using MemoryImageSource for animation

As we've seen, Java 1.1 gives you the ability to create an animation using a MemoryImageSource by updating the image data in memory; whenever you have finished an update, you can send the resulting frame to the consumers. This technique gives you a way to do animations that consume very little memory, since you keep over writing the original image. The applet in Example 12-3 demonstrates MemoryImageSource's animation capability by creating a Mandelbrot image in memory, updating the image as new points are added. Figure 12-3 shows the results, using four consumers to display the image four times.

Example 12–3: Mandelbrot Program

// Java 1.1 only
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.*;
import java.applet.*;

public class Mandelbrot extends Applet implements Runnable {
    Thread animator;
    Image im1, im2, im3, im4;
    public void start() {
        animator = new Thread(this);
        animator.start();
}
public synchronized void stop() {
        animator = null;
}
public void paint(Graphics g) {
    if (im1 != null)
        g.drawImage(im1, 0, 0, null);
    if (im2 != null)
        g.drawImage(im2, 0, getSize().height / 2, null);
    if (im3 != null)
        g.drawImage(im3, getSize().width / 2, 0, null);
    if (im4 != null)
        g.drawImage(im4, getSize().width / 2, getSize().height / 2, null);
}
public void update (Graphics g) {
    paint (g);
}
public synchronized void run() {
    Thread.currentThread().setPriority(Thread.MIN_PRIORITY);
    int width = getSize().width / 2;
    int height = getSize().height / 2;
    byte[] pixels = new byte[width * height];
    int index = 0;
    int iteration=0;
    double a, b, p, q, psq, qsq, pnew, qnew;
    byte[] colorMap = {(byte)255, (byte)255, (byte)255, // white
                       (byte)0, (byte)0, (byte)0}; // black
    MemoryImageSource mis = new MemoryImageSource(
        width, height,
        new IndexColorModel (8, 2, colorMap, 0, false, -1),
        pixels, 0, width);
    mis.setAnimated(true);
    im1 = createImage(mis);
    im2 = createImage(mis);
    im3 = createImage(mis);
im4 = createImage(mis);
        // Generate Mandelbrot
        final int ITERATIONS = 16;
        for (int y=0; y<height; y++) {
            b = ((double)(y-64))/32;
            for (int x=0; x<width; x++) {
                a = ((double)(x-64))/32;
                p=q=0;
                iteration = 0;
               while (iteration < ITERATIONS) {
                    psq = p*p;
                    qsq = q*q;
                    if ((psq + qsq) >= 4.0)
                        break;
                    pnew = psq - qsq + a;
                    qnew = 2*p*q+b;
                    p = pnew;
                    q = qnew;
                    iteration++;
                }
                if (iteration == ITERATIONS) {
                    pixels[index] = 1;
                    mis.newPixels(x, y, 1, 1);
                    repaint();
                }
                index++;
            }
        }
    }
}

Most of the applet in Example 12-3 should be self-explanatory. The init() method starts the thread in which we do our computation. paint() just displays the four images we create. All the work, including the computation, is done in the thread's run() method. run() starts by setting up a color map, creating a MemoryImageSource with animation enabled and creating four images using that source as the producer. It then does the computation, which I won't explain; for our purposes, the interesting part is what happens when we've computed a pixel. We set the appropriate byte in our data array, pixels[], and then call newPixels(), giving the location of the new pixel and its size (1 by 1) as arguments. Thus, we redraw the images for every new pixel. In a real application, you would probably compute a somewhat larger chunk of new data before updating the screen, but the same principles apply.

images

Figure 12–3: Mandelbrot output

12.4 ImageConsumer

The ImageConsumer interface specifies the methods that must be implemented to receive data from an ImageProducer. For the most part, that is the only context in which you need to know about the ImageConsumer interface. If you write an image producer, it will be handed a number of obscure objects, about which you know nothing except that they implement ImageConsumer, and that you can therefore call the methods discussed in this section to deliver your data. The chances that you will ever implement an image consumer are rather remote, unless you are porting Java to a new environment. It is more likely that you will want to subclass ImageFilter, in which case you may need to implement some of these methods. But most of the time, you will just need to know how to hand your data off to the next element in the chain.

The java.awt.image package includes two classes that implement ImageConsumer:PixelGrabber and ImageFilter (and its subclasses). These classes are unique in that they don't display anything on the screen. PixelGrabber takes the image data and stores it in a pixel array; you can use this array to save the image in a file, generate a new image, etc. ImageFilter, which is used in conjunction with FilteredImageSource, modifies the image data; the FilteredImageSource sends the modified image to another consumer, which can further modify or display the new image. When you draw an image on the screen, the JDK's ImageRepresentation class is probably doing the real work. This class is part of the sun.awt.image package. You really don't need to know anything about it, although you may see ImageRepresentation mentioned in a stack trace if you try to filter beyond the end of a pixel array.

12.4.1 ImageConsumer Interface

Constants

There are two sets of constants for ImageConsumer. One set represents those that can be used for the imageComplete() method. The other is used with the setHints() method. See the descriptions of those methods on how to use them.

The first set of flags is for the imageComplete() method:

public static final int IMAGEABORTED

The IMAGEABORTED flag signifies that the image creation process was aborted and the image is not complete. In the image production process, an abort could mean multiple things. It is possible that retrying the production would succeed.

public static final int IMAGEERROR

The IMAGEERROR flag signifies that an error was encountered during the image creation process and the image is not complete. In the image production process, an error could mean multiple things. More than likely, the image file or pixel data is invalid, and retrying won't succeed.

public static final int SINGLEFRAMEDONE

The SINGLEFRAMEDONE flag signifies that a frame other than the last has completed loading. There are additional frames to display, but a new frame is available and is complete. For an example of this flag in use, see the dynamic ImageFilter example in Example 12-8.

public static final int STATICIMAGEDONE

The STATICIMAGEDONE flag signifies that the image has completed loading. If this is a multiframe image, all frames have been generated. For an example of this flag in use, see the dynamic ImageFilter example in Example 12-8.

The following set of flags can be ORed together to form the single parameter to the setHints() method. Certain flags do not make sense set together, but it is the responsibility of the concrete ImageConsumer to enforce this.

public static final int COMPLETESCANLINES

The COMPLETESCANLINES flag signifies that each call to setPixels() will deliver at least one complete scan line of pixels to this consumer.

public static final int RANDOMPIXELORDER

The RANDOMPIXELORDER flag tells the consumer that pixels are not provided in any particular order. Therefore, the consumer cannot perform optimization that depends on pixel delivery order. In the absence of both COMPLETESCANLINES and RANDOMPIXELORDER, the ImageConsumer should assume pixels will arrive in RANDOMPIXELORDER.

public static final int SINGLEFRAME

The SINGLEFRAME flag tells the consumer that this image contains a single nonchanging frame. This is the case with most image formats. An example of an image that does not contain a single frame is the multiframe GIF89a image.

public static final int SINGLEPASS

The SINGLEPASS flag tells the consumer to expect each pixel once and only once. Certain image formats, like progressive JPEG images, deliver a single image several times, with each pass yielding a sharper image.

public static final int TOPDOWNLEFTRIGHT

The final setHints() flag, TOPDOWNLEFTRIGHT, tells the consumer to expect the pixels in a top-down, left-right order. This flag will almost always be set.

Methods

The interface methods are presented in the order in which they are normally called by an ImageProducer.

void setDimensions (int width, int height)

The setDimensions() method should be called once the ImageProducer knows the width and height of the image. This is the actual width and height, not necessarily the scaled size. It is the consumer's responsibility to do the scaling and resizing.

void setProperties (Hashtable properties)

The setProperties() method should only be called by the ImageProducer if the image has any properties that should be stored for later retrieval with the getProperty() method of Image. Every image format has its own property set. One property that tends to be common is the “comment” property. properties represents the Hashtable of properties for the image; the name of each property is used as the Hashtable key.

void setColorModel (ColorModel model)

The setColorModel() method gives the ImageProducer the opportunity to tell the ImageConsumer that the ColorModel model will be used for the majority of pixels in the image. The ImageConsumer may use this information for optimization. However, each call to setPixels() contains its own ColorModel, which isn't necessarily the same as the color model given here. In other words, setColorModel() is only advisory; it does not guarantee that all (or any) of the pixels in the image will use this model. Using different color models for different parts of an image is possible, but not recommended.

void setHints (int hints)

An ImageProducer should call the setHints() method prior to any setPixels() calls. The hints are formed by ORing the constants COMPLETESCANLINES, RANDOMPIXELORDER, SINGLEFRAME, SINGLEPASS, and TOPDOWNLEFTRIGHT. These hints give the image consumer information about the order in which the producer will deliver pixels. When the ImageConsumer is receiving pixels, it can take advantage of these hints for optimization.

void setPixels (int x, int y, int width, int height, ColorModel model, byte pixels[], int offset, int scansize)

An ImageProducer calls the setPixels() method to deliver the image pixel data to the ImageConsumer. The bytes are delivered a rectangle at a time. (x, y) represents the top left corner of the rectangle; its dimensions are width height. model is the ColorModel used for this set of pixels; different calls to setPixels() may use different color models. The pixels themselves are taken from the byte array pixels. offset is the first element of the pixel array that will be used. scansize is the length of the scan lines in the array. In most cases, you want the consumer to render all the pixels on the scan line; in this case, scansize will equal width. However, there are cases in which you want the consumer to ignore part of the scan line; you may be clipping an image, and the ends of the scan line fall outside the clipping region. In this case, rather than copying the pixels you want into a new array, you can specify a width that is smaller than scansize.

That's a lot of information, but it's easy to summarize. A pixel located at point (x1, y1) within the rectangle being delivered to the consumer is located at position ((y1 - y) * scansize + (x1 - x) + offset) within the array pixels[]. Figure 12-4 shows how the pixels delivered by setPixels() fit into the complete image; Figure 12-5 shows how pixels are stored within the array.

void setPixels (int x, int y, int width, int height, ColorModel model, int pixels[], int offset, int scansize)

The second setPixels() method is similar to the first. pixels[] is an array of ints; this is necessary when you have more than eight bits of data per pixel.

void imageComplete (int status)

The ImageProducer calls imageComplete() to tell an ImageConsumer that it has transferred a complete image. The status argument is a flag that describes exactly why the ImageProducer has finished. It may have one of the following values: IMAGEABORTED (if the image production was aborted); IMAGEERROR (if an error in producing the image occurred); SINGLEFRAMEDONE (if a single frame of a multiframe image has been completed); or STATICIMAGEDONE (if all pixels have been delivered). When imageComplete() gets called, the ImageConsumer should call the image producer's removeConsumer() method, unless it wants to receive additional frames (status of SINGLEFRAMEDONE).

images

Figure 12–4: Delivering pixels for an image

images

Figure 12–5: Storing pixels in an array

PPMImageDecoder

Now that we have discussed the ImageConsumer interface, we're finally ready to give an example of a full-fledged ImageProducer. This producer uses the methods of the ImageConsumer interface to communicate with image consumers; image consumers use the ImageProducer interface to register themselves with this producer.

Our image producer will interpret images in the PPM format.* PPM is a simple image format developed by Jef Poskanzer as part of the pbmplus image conversion package. A PPM file starts with a header consisting of the image type, the image's width and height in pixels, and the maximum value of any RGB component. The header is entirely in ASCII. The pixel data follows the header; it is either in binary (if the image type is P6) or ASCII (if the image type is P3). The pixel data is simply a series of bytes describing the color of each pixel, moving left to right and top to bottom. In binary format, each pixel is represented by three bytes: one for red, one for green, and one for blue. In ASCII format, each pixel is represented by three numeric values, separated by white space (space, tab, or newline). A comment may occur anywhere in the file, but it would be surprising to see one outside of the header. Comments start with # and continue to the end of the line. ASCII format files are obviously much larger than binary files. There is no compression on either file type.

The PPMImageDecoder source is listed in Example 12-4. The applet that uses this class is shown in Example 12-5. You can reuse a lot of the code in the PPMImageDecoder when you implement your own image producers.

Example 12–4: PPMImageDecoder Source

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.*;
import java.util.*;
import java.io.*;

public class PPMImageDecoder implements ImageProducer {

/* Since done in-memory, only one consumer */
    private ImageConsumer consumer;
    boolean loadError = false;
    int width;
    int height;
    int store[][];
    Hashtable props = new Hashtable();
/* Format of Ppm file is single pass/frame, w/ complete scan lines in order */
    private static int PpmHints = (ImageConsumer.TOPDOWNLEFTRIGHT |
                                   ImageConsumer.COMPLETESCANLINES |
                                   ImageConsumer.SINGLEPASS |
                                   ImageConsumer.SINGLEFRAME);

The class starts by declaring class variables and constants. We will use the variable PpmHints when we call setHints(). Here, we set this variable to a collection of “hint” constants that indicate we will produce pixel data in top-down, left-right order; we will always send complete scan lines; we will make only one pass over the pixel data (we will send each pixel once); and there is one frame per image (i.e., we aren't producing a multiframe sequence).

The next chunk of code implements the ImageProducer interface; consumers use it to request image data:

/* There is only a single consumer. When it registers, produce image. */
/* On error, notify consumer. */

    public synchronized void addConsumer (ImageConsumer ic) {
        consumer = ic;
        try {
            produce();
        }catch (Exception e) {
            if (consumer != null)
                consumer.imageComplete (ImageConsumer.IMAGEERROR);
        }
        consumer = null;
    }

/* If consumer passed to routine is single consumer, return true, else false. */

    public synchronized boolean isConsumer (ImageConsumer ic) {
        return (ic == consumer);
    }

/* Disables consumer if currently consuming. */

    public synchronized void removeConsumer (ImageConsumer ic) {
    if (consumer == ic)
        consumer = null;
    }

/* Production is done by adding consumer. */

    public void startProduction (ImageConsumer ic) {
        addConsumer (ic);
    }

public void requestTopDownLeftRightResend (ImageConsumer ic) {
    // Not needed. The data is always in this format.
}

The previous group of methods implements the ImageProducer interface. They are quite simple, largely because of the way this ImageProducer generates images. It builds the image in memory before delivering it to the consumer; you must call the readImage() method (discussed shortly) before you can create an image with this consumer. Because the image is in memory before any consumers can register their interest, we can write an addConsumer() method that registers a consumer and delivers all the data to that consumer before returning. Therefore, we don't need to manage a list of consumers in a Hashtable or some other collection object. We can store the current consumer in an instance variable ic and forget about any others: only one consumer exists at a time. To make sure that only one consumer exists at a time, we synchronize the addConsumer(), isConsumer(), and removeConsumer() methods. Synchronization prevents another consumer from registering itself before the current consumer has finished. If you write an ImageProducer that builds the image in memory before delivering it, you can probably use this code verbatim.

addConsumer() is little more than a call to the method produce(), which handles “consumer relations”: it delivers the pixels to the consumer using the methods in the ImageConsumer interface. If produce() throws an exception, addConsumer() calls imageComplete() with an IMAGEERROR status code. Here's the code for the produce() method:

/* Production Process:
        Prerequisite: Image already read into store array. (readImage)
                      props / width / height already set (readImage)
        Assumes RGB Color Model - would need to filter to change.
        Sends Ppm Image data to consumer.
        Pixels sent one row at a time.
*/

    private void produce () {
        ColorModel cm = ColorModel.getRGBdefault();
        if (consumer != null) {
            if (loadError) {
                consumer.imageComplete (ImageConsumer.IMAGEERROR);
            } else {
                consumer.setDimensions (width, height);
                consumer.setProperties (props);
                consumer.setColorModel (cm);
                consumer.setHints (PpmHints);
                for (int j=0;j<height;j++)
                    consumer.setPixels (0, j, width, 1, cm, store[j], 0, width);
                consumer.imageComplete (ImageConsumer.STATICIMAGEDONE);
            }
        }
}

produce() just calls the ImageConsumer methods in order: it sets the image's dimensions, hands off an empty Hashtable of properties, sets the color model (the default RGB model) and the hints, and then calls setPixels() once for each row of pixel data. The data is in the integer array store[][], which has already been loaded by the readImage() method (defined in the following code). When the data is delivered, the method setPixels() calls imageComplete() to indicate that the image has been finished successfully.

/* Allows reading to be from internal byte array, in addition to disk/socket */

    public void readImage (byte b[]) {
        readImage (new ByteArrayInputStream (b));
    }

/* readImage reads image data from Stream */
/* parses data for PPM format */
/* closes inputstream when done */

    public void readImage (InputStream is) {
        long tm = System.currentTimeMillis();
        boolean raw=false;
        DataInputStream dis = null;
        BufferedInputStream bis = null;
        try {
            bis = new BufferedInputStream (is);
            dis = new DataInputStream (bis);
            String word;
            word = readWord (dis);
            if ("P6".equals (word)) {
                raw = true;
            } else if ("P3".equals (word)) {
                raw = false;
            } else {
                throw (new AWTException ("Invalid Format " + word));
            }
            width = Integer.parseInt (readWord (dis));
            height = Integer.parseInt (readWord (dis));
            // Could put comments in props - makes readWord more complex
            int maxColors = Integer.parseInt (readWord (dis));
            if ((maxColors < 0) || (maxColors > 255)) {
                throw (new AWTException ("Invalid Colors " + maxColors));
            }
            store = new int[height][width];
            if (raw) {                    // binary format (raw) pixel data
                byte row[] = new byte [width*3];
                for (int i=0;i<height;i++){
                    dis.readFully (row);
                    for (int j=0,k=0;j<width;j++,k+=3) {
                        int red = row[k];
                        int green = row[k+1];
                        int blue = row[k+2];
                        if (red < 0)
                            red +=256;
                        if (green < 0)
                            green +=256;
                        if (blue < 0)
                            blue +=256;
                        store[i][j] = (0xff<< 24) | (red << 16) |
                                      (green << 8) | blue;
                    }
                }
            } else {                        // ASCII pixel data
                for (int i=0;i<height;i++) {
                    for (int j=0;j<width;j++) {
                        int red = Integer.parseInt (readWord (dis));
                        int green = Integer.parseInt (readWord (dis));
                        int blue = Integer.parseInt (readWord (dis));
                        store[i][j] = (0xff<< 24) | (red << 16) |
                                      (green << 8) | blue;
                    }
}
            }
        } catch (IOException io) {
            loadError = true;
            System.out.println ("IO Exception " + io.getMessage());
        } catch (AWTException awt) {
            loadError = true;
            System.out.println ("AWT Exception " + awt.getMessage());
        } catch (NoSuchElementException nse) {
            loadError = true;
            System.out.println ("No Such Element Exception " + nse.getMessage());
        } finally {
            try {
                if (dis != null)
                    dis.close();
                if (bis != null)
                    bis.close();
                if (is != null)
                    is.close();
            } catch (IOException io) {
                System.out.println ("IO Exception " + io.getMessage());
            }
        }
        System.out.println ("Done in " + (System.currentTimeMillis() - tm)
                            + " ms");
}

readImage() reads the image data from an InputStream and converts it into the array of pixel data that produce() transfers to the consumer. Code using this class must call readImage() to process the data before calling createImage(); we'll see how this works shortly. Although there is a lot of code in readImage(), it's fairly simple. (It would be much more complex if we were dealing with an image format that compressed the data.) It makes heavy use of readWord(), a utility method that we'll discuss next; readWord() returns a word of ASCII text as a string.

readImage() starts by converting the InputStream into a DataInputStream. It uses readWord() to get the first word from the stream. This should be either “P6” or “P3”, depending on whether the data is in binary or ASCII. It then uses readWord() to save the image's width and height and the maximum value of any color component. Next, it reads the color data into the store[][] array. The ASCII case is simple because we can use readWord() to read ASCII words conveniently; we read red, green, and blue words, convert them into ints, and pack the three into one element (one pixel) of store[][]. For binary data, we read an entire scan line into the byte array row[], using readFully(); then we start a loop that packs this scan line into one row of store[][]. A little additional complexity is in the inner loop because we must keep track of two arrays (row[] and store[][]). We read red, green, and blue components from row[], converting Java's signed bytes to unsigned data by adding 256 to any negative values; finally, we pack these components into one element of store[][].

/* readWord returns a word of text from stream */
/* Ignores PPM comment lines. */
/* word defined to be something wrapped by whitespace */

    private String readWord (InputStream is) throws IOException {
        StringBuffer buf = new StringBuffer();
        int b;
        do {// get rid of leading whitespace
            if ((b=is.read()) == -1)
                throw new EOFException();
            if ((char)b == '#') { // read to end of line - ppm comment
                DataInputStream dis = new DataInputStream (is);
                dis.readLine();
                b = ' '; // ensure more reading
            }
        }while (Character.isSpace ((char)b));
        do {
            buf.append ((char)(b));
            if ((b=is.read()) == -1)
                throw new EOFException();
        } while (!Character.isSpace ((char)b)); // reads first space
        return buf.toString();
    }
}

readWord() is a utility method that reads one ASCII word from an InputStream. A word is a sequence of characters that aren't spaces; space characters include newlines and tabs in addition to spaces. This method also throws out any comments (anything between # and the end of the line). It collects the characters into a StringBuffer, converting the StringBuffer into a String when it returns.

Example 12–5: PPMImageDecoder Test Program

import java.awt.Graphics;
import java.awt.Color;
import java.awt.image.ImageConsumer;
import java.awt.Image;
import java.awt.MediaTracker;
import java.net.URL;
import java.net.MalformedURLException;
import java.io.InputStream;
import java.io.IOException;
import java.applet.Applet;
public class ppmViewer extends Applet {
    Image image = null;
    public void init () {
        try {
            String file = getParameter ("file");
            if (file != null) {
                URL imageurl = new URL (getDocumentBase(), file);
                InputStream is = imageurl.openStream();
                PPMImageDecoder ppm = new PPMImageDecoder ();
                ppm.readImage (is);
image = createImage (ppm);
                repaint();
            }
        } catch (MalformedURLException me) {
            System.out.println ("Bad URL");
        } catch (IOException io) {
            System.out.println ("Bad File");
        }
    }
    public void paint (Graphics g) {
        g.drawImage (image, 0, 0, this);
    }
}

The applet we use to test our ImageProducer is very simple. It creates a URL that points to an appropriate PPM file and gets an InputStream from that URL. It then creates an instance of our PPMImageDecoder; calls readImage() to load the image and generate pixel data; and finally, calls createImage() with our ImageProducer as an argument to create an Image object, which we draw in paint().

12.4.2 PixelGrabber

The PixelGrabber class is a utility for converting an image into an array of pixels. This is useful in many situations. If you are writing a drawing utility that lets users create their own graphics, you probably want some way to save a drawing to a file. Likewise, if you're implementing a shared whiteboard, you'll want some way to transmit images across the Net. If you're doing some kind of image processing, you may want to read and alter individual pixels in an image. The PixelGrabber class is an ImageConsumer that can capture a subset of the current pixels of an Image. Once you have the pixels, you can easily save the image in a file, send it across the Net, or work with individual points in the array. To recreate the Image (or a modified version), you can pass the pixel array to a MemoryImageSource.

Prior to Java 1.1, PixelGrabber saves an array of pixels but doesn't save the image's width and height—that's your responsibility. You may want to put the width and height in the first two elements of the pixel array and use an offset of 2 when you store (or reproduce) the image.

Starting with Java 1.1, the grabbing process changes in several ways. You can ask the PixelGrabber for the image's size or color model. You can grab pixels asynchronously and abort the grabbing process before it is completed. Finally, you don't have to preallocate the pixel data array.

Constructors

public PixelGrabber (ImageProducer ip, int x, int y, int width, int height, int pixels[], int offset, int scansize)

The first PixelGrabber constructor creates a new PixelGrabber instance. The PixelGrabber uses ImageProducer ip to store the unscaled cropped rectangle at position (x, y) of size width height into the pixels array, starting at offset within pixels, and each row starting at increments of scansize from that.

As shown in Figure 12-5, the position (x1, y1) would be stored in pixels[] at position (y1 - y) * scansize + (x1 - x) + offset. Calling grabPixels() starts the process of writing pixels into the array.

The ColorModel for the pixels copied into the array is always the default RGB model: that is, 32 bits per pixel, with 8 bits for alpha, red, green, and blue components.

public PixelGrabber (Image image, int x, int y, int width, int height, int pixels[], int offset, int scansize)

This version of the PixelGrabber constructor gets the ImageProducer of the Image image through getSource(); it then calls the previous constructor to create the PixelGrabber.

public PixelGrabber (Image image, int x, int y, int width, int height, boolean forceRGB) images

This version of the constructor does not require you to preallocate the pixel array and lets you preserve the color model of the original image. If forceRGB is true, the pixels of image are converted to the default RGB model when grabbed. If forceRGB is false and all the pixels of image use one ColorModel, the original color model of image is preserved.

As with the other constructors, the x, y, width, and height values define the bounding box to grab. However, there's one special case to consider. Setting width or height to -1 tells the PixelGrabber to take the width and height from the image itself. In this case, the grabber stores all the pixels below and to the right of the point (x, y). If (x, y) is outside of the image, you get an empty array.

Once the pixels have been grabbed, you get the pixel data via the getPixels() method described in “Other methods.” To get the ColorModel, see the getColorModel() method.

ImageConsumer interface methods

public void setDimensions (int width, int height)

In Java 1.0, the setDimensions() method of PixelGrabber ignores the width and height, since this was set by the constructor.

With Java 1.1, setDimensions() is called by the image producer to give it the dimensions of the original image. This is how the PixelGrabber finds out the image's size if the constructor specified -1 for the image's width or height.

public void setHints (int hints)

The setHints() method ignores the hints.

public void setProperties (Hashtable properties)

The setProperties() method ignores the properties.

public void setColorModel (ColorModel model)

The setColorModel() method ignores the model.

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int w, int h, ColorModel model, byte pixels[], int offset, int scansize)

The setPixels() method is called by the ImageProducer to deliver pixel data for some image. If the pixels fall within the portion of the image that the PixelGrabber is interested in, they are stored within the array passed to the PixelGrabber constructor. If necessary, the ColorModel is used to convert each pixel from its original representation to the default RGB representation. This method is called when each pixel coming from the image producer is represented by a byte.

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int w, int h, ColorModel model, int pixels[], int offset, int scansize)

The second setPixels() method is almost identical to the first; it is used when each pixel coming from the image producer is represented by an int.

public synchronized void imageComplete (int status)

The imageComplete() method uses status to determine if the pixels were successfully delivered. The PixelGrabber then notifies anyone waiting for the pixels from a grabPixels() call.

Grabbing methods

public synchronized boolean grabPixels (long ms) throws InterruptedException

The grabPixels() method starts storing pixel data from the image. It doesn't return until all pixels have been loaded into the pixels array or until ms milliseconds have passed. The return value is true if all pixels were successfully acquired. Otherwise, it returns false for the abort, error, or timeout condition encountered. The exception InterruptedException is thrown if another thread interrupts this one while waiting for pixel data.

public boolean grabPixels () throws InterruptedException

This grabPixels() method starts storing pixel data from the image. It doesn't return until all pixels have been loaded into the pixels array. The return value is true if all pixels were successfully acquired. It returns false if it encountered an abort or error condition. The exception InterruptedException is thrown if another thread interrupts this one while waiting for pixel data.

public synchronized void startGrabbing() images

The startGrabbing() method provides an asynchronous means of grabbing the pixels. This method returns immediately; it does not block like the grabPixels() methods described previously. To find out when the PixelGrabber has finished, call getStatus().

public synchronized void abortGrabbing() images

The abortGrabbing() method allows you to stop grabbing pixel data from the image. If a thread is waiting for pixel data from a grabPixels() call, it is interrupted and grabPixels() throws an InterruptedException.

Other methods

public synchronized int getStatus() images

public synchronized int status () images

Call the getStatus() method to find out whether a PixelGrabber succeeded in grabbing the pixels you want. The return value is a set of ImageObserver flags ORed together. ALLBITS and FRAMEBITS indicate success; which of the two you get depends on how the image was created. ABORT and ERROR indicate that problems occurred while the image was being produced. status() is the Java 1.0 name for this method.

public synchronized int getWidth() images

The getWidth() method reports the width of the image data stored in the destination buffer. If you set width to -1 when you called the PixelGrabber constructor, this information will be available only after the grabber has received the information from the image producer (setDimensions()). If the width is not available yet, getWidth() returns -1.

The width of the resulting image depends on several factors. If you specified the width explicitly in the constructor, the resulting image has that width, no questions asked—even if the position at which you start grabbing is outside the image. If you specified -1 for the width, the resulting width will be the difference between the x position at which you start grabbing (set in the constructor) and the actual image width; for example, if you start grabbing at x=50 and the original image width is 100, the width of the resulting image is 50. If x falls outside the image, the resulting width is 0.

public synchronized int getHeight() images

The getHeight() method reports the height of the image data stored in the destination buffer. If you set height to -1 when you called the PixelGrabber constructor, this information will be available only after the grabber has received the information from the image producer (setDimensions()). If the height is not available yet, getHeight() returns -1.

The height of the resulting image depends on several factors. If you specified the height explicitly in the constructor, the resulting image has that height, no questions asked—even if the position at which you start grabbing is outside the image. If you specified -1 for the height, the resulting height will be the difference between the y position at which you start grabbing (set in the constructor) and the actual image height; for example, if you start grabbing at y=50 and the original image height is 100, the height of the resulting image is 50. If y falls outside the image, the resulting height is 0.

public synchronized Object getPixels() images

The getPixels() method returns an array of pixel data. If you passed a pixel array to the constructor, you get back your original array object, with the data filled in. If, however, the array was not previously allocated, you get back a new array. The size of this array depends on the image you are grabbing and the portion of that image you want. If size and image format are not known yet, this method returns null. If the PixelGrabber is still grabbing pixels, this method returns an array that may change based upon the rest of the image. The type of the array you get is either int[] or byte[], depending on the color model of the image. To find out if the PixelGrabber has finished, call getStatus().

public synchronized ColorModel getColorModel() images

The getColorModel() method returns the color model of the image. This could be the default RGB ColorModel if a pixel buffer was explicitly provided, null if the color model is not known yet, or a varying color model until all the pixel data has been grabbed. After all the pixels have been grabbed, getColorModel() returns the actual color model used for the getPixels() array. It is best to wait until grabbing has finished before you ask for the ColorModel; to find out, call getStatus().

Using PixelGrabber to modify an image

You can modify images by combining a PixelGrabber with MemoryImageSource. Use getImage() to load an image from the Net; then use PixelGrabber to convert the image into an array. Modify the data in the array any way you please; then use MemoryImageSource as an image producer to display the new image.

Example 12-6 demonstrates the use of the PixelGrabber and MemoryImageSource to rotate, flip, and mirror an image. (We could also do the rotations with a subclass of ImageFilter, which we will discuss next.) The output is shown in Figure 12-6. When working with an image that is loaded from a local disk or the network, remember to wait until the image is loaded before grabbing its pixels. In this example, we use a MediaTracker to wait for the image to load.

Example 12–6: Flip Source

import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.*;
public class flip extends Applet {
        Image i, j, k, l;
        public void init () {
                MediaTracker mt = new MediaTracker (this);
                i = getImage (getDocumentBase(), "ora-icon.gif");
                mt.addImage (i, 0);
        try {
                mt.waitForAll();
                int width = i.getWidth(this);
                int height = i.getHeight(this);
                int pixels[] = new int [width * height];
                PixelGrabber pg = new PixelGrabber
                (i, 0, 0, width, height, pixels, 0, width);
                if (pg.grabPixels() && ((pg.status() &
                        ImageObserver.ALLBITS) !=0)) {
                        j = createImage (new MemoryImageSource (width, height,
                            rowFlipPixels (pixels, width, height), 0, width));
                        k = createImage (new MemoryImageSource (width, height,
                            colFlipPixels (pixels, width, height), 0, width));
                        l = createImage (new MemoryImageSource (height, width,
                            rot90Pixels (pixels, width, height), 0, height));
                }
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                e.printStackTrace();
        }
}

The try block in Example 12-6 does all the interesting work. It uses a PixelGrabber to grab the entire image into the array pixels[]. After calling grabPixels(), it checks the PixelGrabber status to make sure that the image was stored correctly. It then generates three new images based on the first by calling createImage() with a MemoryImageSource object as an argument. Instead of using the original array, the MemoryImageSource objects call several utility methods to manipulate the array: rowFlipPixels(), colFlipPixels(), and rot90Pixels(). These methods all return integer arrays.

public void paint (Graphics g) {
        g.drawImage (i, 10, 10, this); // regular
        if (j != null)
g.drawImage (j, 150, 10, this); // rowFlip
    if (k != null)
        g.drawImage (k, 10, 60, this); // colFlip
    if (l != null)
        g.drawImage (l, 150, 60, this); // rot90
}
private int[] rowFlipPixels (int pixels[], int width, int height) {
        int newPixels[] = null;
        if ((width*height) == pixels.length) {
                newPixels = new int [width*height];
                int newIndex=0;
                for (int y=height-1;y>=0;y--)
                        for (int x=width-1;x>=0;x--)
                                newPixels[newIndex++]=pixels[y*width+x];
        }
        return newPixels;
}

images

Figure 12–6: Flip output

rowFlipPixels() creates a mirror image of the original, flipped horizontally. It is nothing more than a nested loop that copies the original array into a new array.

    private int[] colFlipPixels (int pixels[], int width, int height) {
        ...
    }
private int[] rot90Pixels (int pixels[], int width, int height) {
        ...
    }
}

colFlipPixels() and rot90Pixels() are fundamentally similar to rowFlipPixels(); they just copy the original pixel array into another array, and return the result. colFlipPixels() generates a vertical mirror image; rot90Pixels() rotates the image by 90 degrees counterclockwise.

Grabbing data asynchronously

To demonstrate the new methods introduced by Java 1.1 for PixelGrabber, the following program grabs the pixels and reports information about the original image on mouse clicks. It takes its data from the image used in Figure 12-6.

// Java 1.1 only
import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.*;
import java.awt.event.*;
public class grab extends Applet {
    Image i;
    PixelGrabber pg;
    public void init () {
        i = getImage (getDocumentBase(), "ora-icon.gif");
        pg = new PixelGrabber (i, 0, 0, -1, -1, false);
        pg.startGrabbing();
        enableEvents (AWTEvent.MOUSE_EVENT_MASK);
    }
    public void paint (Graphics g) {
        g.drawImage (i, 10, 10, this);
    }
    protected void processMouseEvent(MouseEvent e) {
        if (e.getID() == MouseEvent.MOUSE_CLICKED) {
            System.out.println ("Status: " + pg.getStatus());
            System.out.println ("Width: " + pg.getWidth());
            System.out.println ("Height: " + pg.getHeight());
            System.out.println ("Pixels: " +
                (pg.getPixels() instanceof byte[] ? "bytes" : "ints"));
            System.out.println ("Model: " + pg.getColorModel());
        }
        super.processMouseEvent (e);
    }
}

This applet creates a PixelGrabber without specifying an array, then starts grabbing pixels. The grabber allocates its own array, but we never bother to ask for it since we don't do anything with the data itself: we only report the grabber's status. (If we wanted the data, we'd call getPixels().) Sample output from a single mouse click, after the image loaded, would appear something like the following:

Status: 27
Width: 120
Height: 38
Pixels: bytes
Model: java.awt.image.IndexColorModel@1ed34

You need to convert the status value manually to the corresponding meaning by looking up the status codes in ImageObserver. The value 27 indicates that the 1, 2, 8, and 16 flags are set, which translates to the WIDTH, HEIGHT, SOMEBITS, and FRAMEBITS flags, respectively.

12.5 ImageFilter

Image filters provide another way to modify images. An ImageFilter is used in conjunction with a FilteredImageSource object. The ImageFilter, which implements ImageConsumer (and Cloneable), receives data from an ImageProducer and modifies it; the FilteredImageSource, which implements ImageProducer, sends the modified data to the new consumer. As Figure 12-1 shows, an image filter sits between the original ImageProducer and the ultimate ImageConsumer.

The ImageFilter class implements a “null” filter that does nothing to the image. To modify an image, you must use a subclass of ImageFilter, by either writing one yourself or using a subclass provided with AWT, like the CropImageFilter. Another ImageFilter subclass provided with AWT is the RGBImageFilter; it is useful for filtering an image on the basis of a pixel's color. Unlike the CropImageFilter, RGBImageFilter is an abstract class, so you need to create your own subclass to use it. Java 1.1 introduces two more image filters, AreaAveragingScaleFilter and ReplicateScaleFilter. Other filters must be created by subclassing ImageFilter and providing the necessary methods to modify the image as necessary.

ImageFilters tend to work on a pixel-by-pixel basis, so large Image objects can take a considerable amount of time to filter, depending on the complexity of the filtering algorithm. In the simplest case, filters generate new pixels based upon the color value and location of the original pixel. Such filters can start delivering data before they have loaded the entire image. More complex filters may use internal buffers to store an intermediate copy of the image so the filter can use adjacent pixel values to smooth or blend pixels together. These filters may need to load the entire image before they can deliver any data to the ultimate consumer.

To use an ImageFilter, you pass it to the FilteredImageSource constructor, which serves as an ImageProducer to pass the new pixels to their consumer. The following code runs the image logo.jpg through an image filter, SomeImageFilter, to produce a new image. The constructor for SomeImageFilter is called within the constructor for FilteredImageSource, which in turn is the only argument to createImage().

Image image = getImage (new URL (
    "http://www.ora.com/images/logo.jpg"));
Image newOne = createImage (new FilteredImageSource (image.getSource(),
                                new SomeImageFilter()));

12.5.1 ImageFilter Methods

Variables

protected ImageConsumer consumer;

The actual ImageConsumer for the image. It is initialized automatically for you by the getFilterInstance() method.

Constructor

public ImageFilter ()

The only constructor for ImageFilter is the default one, which takes no arguments. Subclasses can provide their own constructors if they need additional information.

ImageConsumer interface methods

public void setDimensions (int width, int height)

The setDimensions() method of ImageFilter is called when the width and height of the original image are known. It calls consumer.setDimensions() to tell the next consumer the dimensions of the filtered image. If you subclass ImageFilter and your filter changes the image's dimensions, you should override this method to compute and report the new dimensions.

public void setProperties (Hashtable properties)

The setProperties() method is called to provide the image filter with the property list for the original image. The image filter adds the property filters to the list and passes it along to the next consumer. The value given for the filters property is the result of the image filter's toString() method; that is, the String representation of the current filter. If filters is already set, information about this ImageFilter is appended to the end. Subclasses of ImageFilter may add other properties.

public void setColorModel (ColorModel model)

The setColorModel() method is called to give the ImageFilter the color model used for most of the pixels in the original image. It passes this color model on to the next consumer. Subclasses may override this method if they change the color model.

public void setHints (int hints)

The setHints() method is called to give the ImageFilter hints about how the producer will deliver pixels. This method passes the same set of hints to the next consumer. Subclasses must override this method if they need to provide different hints; for example, if they are delivering pixels in a different order.

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int width, int height, ColorModel model, byte pixels[], int offset, int scansize)

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int width, int height, ColorModel model, int pixels[], int offset, int scansize)

The setPixels() method receives pixel data from the ImageProducer and passes all the information on to the ImageConsumer. (x, y) is the top left corner of the bounding rectangle for the pixels. The bounding rectangle has size width height. The ColorModel for the new image is model. pixels is the byte or integer array of the pixel information, starting at offset (usually 0), with scan lines of size scansize (usually width).

public void imageComplete (int status)

The imageComplete() method receives the completion status from the ImageProducer and passes it along to the ImageConsumer.

If you subclass ImageFilter, you will probably override the setPixels() methods. For simple filters, you may be able to modify the pixel array and deliver the result to consumer.setPixels() immediately. For more complex filters, you will have to build a buffer containing the entire image; in this case, the call to imageComplete() will probably trigger filtering and pixel delivery.

Cloneable interface methods

public Object clone ()

The clone() method creates a clone of the ImageFilter. The getFilterInstance() function uses this method to create a copy of the ImageFilter. Cloning allows the same filter instance to be used with multiple Image objects.

Other methods

public ImageFilter getFilterInstance (ImageConsumer ic)

FilteredImageSource calls getFilterInstance() to register ic as the ImageConsumer for an instance of this filter; to do so, it sets the instance variable consumer. In effect, this method inserts the ImageFilter between the image's producer and the consumer. You have to override this method only if there are special requirements for the insertion process. This default implementation just calls clone().

public void resendTopDownLeftRight (ImageProducer ip)

The resendTopDownLeftRight() method tells the ImageProducer ip to try to resend the image data in the top-down, left-to-right order. If you override this method and your ImageFilter has saved the image data internally, you may want your ImageFilter to resend the data itself, rather than asking the ImageProducer. Otherwise, your subclass may ignore the request or pass it along to the ImageProducer ip.

Subclassing ImageFilter: A blurring filter

When you subclass ImageFilter, there are very few restrictions on what you can do. We will create a few subclasses that show some of the possibilities. This ImageFilter generates a new pixel by averaging the pixels around it. The result is a blurred version of the original. To implement this filter, we have to save all the pixel data into a buffer; we can't start delivering pixels until the entire image is in hand. Therefore, we override setPixels() to build the buffer; we override imageComplete() to produce the new pixels and deliver them.

Before looking at the code, here are a few hints about how the filter works; it uses a few tricks that may be helpful in other situations. We need to provide two versions of setPixels(): one for integer arrays, and the other for byte arrays. To avoid duplicating code, both versions call a single method, setThePixels(), which takes an Object as an argument, instead of a pixel array; thus it can be called with either kind of pixel array. Within the method, we check whether the pixels argument is an instance of byte[] or int[]. The body of this method uses another trick: when it reads the byte[] version of the pixel array, it ANDs the value with 0xff. This prevents the byte value, which is signed, from being converted to a negative int when used as an argument to cm.getRGB().

The logic inside of imageComplete() gets a bit hairy. This method does the actual filtering, after all the data has arrived. Its job is basically simple: compute an average value of the pixel and the eight pixels surrounding it (i.e., a 33 rectangle with the current pixel in the center). The problem lies in taking care of the edge conditions. We don't always want to average nine pixels; in fact, we may want to average as few as four. The if statements figure out which surrounding pixels should be included in the average. The pixels we care about are placed in sumArray[], which has nine elements. We keep track of the number of elements that have been saved in the variable sumIndex and use a helper method, avgPixels(), to compute the average. The code might be a little cleaner if we used a Vector, which automatically counts the number of elements it contains, but it would probably be much slower.

Example 12-7 shows the code for the blurring filter.

Example 12–7: Blur Filter Source

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.*;


public class BlurFilter extends ImageFilter {
    private int savedWidth, savedHeight, savedPixels[];
    private static ColorModel defaultCM = ColorModel.getRGBdefault();

    public void setDimensions (int width, int height) {
        savedWidth=width;
savedHeight=height;
        savedPixels=new int [width*height];
        consumer.setDimensions (width, height);
}

We override setDimensions() to save the original image's height and width, which we use later.

public void setColorModel (ColorModel model) {
// Change color model to model you are generating
    consumer.setColorModel (defaultCM);
}

public void setHints (int hintflags) {
// Set new hints, but preserve SINGLEFRAME setting
    consumer.setHints (TOPDOWNLEFTRIGHT | COMPLETESCANLINES |
                        SINGLEPASS | (hintflags & SINGLEFRAME));
}

This filter always generates pixels in the same order, so it sends the hint flags TOPDOWNLEFTRIGHT, COMPLETESCANLINES, and SINGLEPASS to the consumer, regardless of what the image producer says. It sends the SINGLEFRAME hint only if the producer has sent it.

private void setThePixels (int x, int y, int width, int height,
        ColorModel cm, Object pixels, int offset, int scansize) {
    int sourceOffset = offset;
    int destinationOffset = y * savedWidth + x;
    boolean bytearray = (pixels instanceof byte[]);
    for (int yy=0;yy<height;yy++) {
        for (int xx=0;xx<width;xx++)
            if (bytearray)
                savedPixels[destinationOffset++]=
                    cm.getRGB(((byte[])pixels)[sourceOffset++]&0xff);
            else
                savedPixels[destinationOffset++]=
                    cm.getRGB(((int[])pixels)[sourceOffset++]);
        sourceOffset += (scansize - width);
        destinationOffset += (savedWidth - width);
    }
}

setThePixels() saves the pixel data for the image in the array savedPixels[]. Both versions of setPixels() call this method. It doesn't pass the pixels along to the image consumer, since this filter can't process the pixels until the entire image is available.

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int width, int height,
        ColorModel cm, byte pixels[], int offset, int scansize) {
    setThePixels (x, y, width, height, cm, pixels, offset, scansize);
}
public void setPixels (int x, int y, int width, int height,
        ColorModel cm, int pixels[], int offset, int scansize) {
    setThePixels (x, y, width, height, cm, pixels, offset, scansize);
}

public void imageComplete (int status) {
    if ((status == IMAGEABORTED) || (status == IMAGEERROR)) {
        consumer.imageComplete (status);
        return;
    } else {
        int pixels[] = new int [savedWidth];
        int position, sumArray[], sumIndex;
        sumArray = new int [9]; // maxsize - vs. Vector for performance
        for (int yy=0;yy<savedHeight;yy++) {
            position=0;
            int start = yy * savedWidth;
            for (int xx=0;xx<savedWidth;xx++) {
                sumIndex=0;
                                                               // xx yy
                sumArray[sumIndex++] = savedPixels[start+xx]; // center center
                if (yy != (savedHeight-1)) // center bottom
                    sumArray[sumIndex++] = savedPixels[start+xx+savedWidth];
                if (yy != 0) // center top
                    sumArray[sumIndex++] = savedPixels[start+xx-savedWidth];
                if (xx != (savedWidth-1)) // right center
                    sumArray[sumIndex++] = savedPixels[start+xx+1];
                if (xx != 0) // left center
                    sumArray[sumIndex++] = savedPixels[start+xx-1];
                if ((yy != 0) && (xx != 0)) // left top
                    sumArray[sumIndex++] = savedPixels[start+xx-savedWidth-1];
                if ((yy != (savedHeight-1)) && (xx != (savedWidth-1)))
                    //                                           right bottom
                    sumArray[sumIndex++] = savedPixels[start+xx+savedWidth+1];
                if ((yy != 0) && (xx != (savedWidth-1))) //right top
                    sumArray[sumIndex++] = savedPixels[start+xx-savedWidth+1];
                if ((yy != (savedHeight-1)) && (xx != 0)) //left bottom
                    sumArray[sumIndex++] = savedPixels[start+xx+savedWidth-1];
                pixels[position++] = avgPixels(sumArray, sumIndex);
            }
            consumer.setPixels (0, yy, savedWidth, 1, defaultCM,
                                pixels, 0, savedWidth);
        }
        consumer.imageComplete (status);
    }
}

imageComplete() does the actual filtering after the pixels have been delivered and saved. If the producer reports that an error occurred, this method passes the error flags to the consumer and returns. If not, it builds a new array, pixels[], which contains the filtered pixels, and delivers these to the consumer.

Previously, we gave an overview of how the filtering process works. Here are some details. (xx, yy) represents the current point's x and y coordinates. The point (xx, yy) must always fall within the image; otherwise, our loops are constructed incorrectly. Therefore, we can copy (xx, yy) into the sumArray[] for averaging without any tests. For the point's eight neighbors, we check whether the neighbor falls in the image; if so, we add it to sumArray[]. For example, the point just below (xx, yy) is at the bottom center of the 33 rectangle of points we are averaging. We know that xx falls within the image; yy falls within the image if it doesn't equal savedHeight-1. We do similar tests for the other points.

Even though we're working with a rectangular image, our arrays are all one-dimensional so we have to convert a coordinate pair (xx, yy) into a single array index. To help us do the bookkeeping, we use the local variable start to keep track of the start of the current scan line. Then start + xx is the current point; start + xx + savedWidth is the point immediately below; start + xx + savedWidth-1 is the point below and to the left; and so on.

avgPixels() is our helper method for computing the average value that we assign to the new pixel. For each pixel in the pixels[] array, it extracts the red, blue, green, and alpha components; averages them separately, and returns a new ARGB value.

private int avgPixels (int pixels[], int size) {
        float redSum=0, greenSum=0, blueSum=0, alphaSum=0;
        for (int i=0;i<size;i++)
            try {
                int pixel = pixels[i];
                redSum += defaultCM.getRed (pixel);
                greenSum += defaultCM.getGreen (pixel);
                blueSum += defaultCM.getBlue (pixel);
                alphaSum += defaultCM.getAlpha (pixel);
            } catch (ArrayIndexOutOfBoundsException e) {
                System.out.println ("Ooops");
            }
        int redAvg = (int)(redSum / size);
        int greenAvg = (int)(greenSum / size);
        int blueAvg = (int)(blueSum / size);
        int alphaAvg = (int)(alphaSum / size);
        return ((0xff << 24) | (redAvg << 16) |
                (greenAvg << 8) | (blueAvg << 0));
    }
}

Producing many images from one: dynamic ImageFilter

The ImageFilter framework is flexible enough to allow you to return a sequence of images based on an original. You can send back one frame at a time, calling the following when you are finished with each frame:

consumer.imageComplete(ImageConsumer.SINGLEFRAMEDONE);

After you have generated all the frames, you can tell the consumer that the sequence is finished with the STATICIMAGEDONE constant. In fact, this is exactly what the new animation capabilities of MemoryImageSource use.

In Example 12-8, the DynamicFilter lets the consumer display an image. After the image has been displayed, the filter gradually overwrites the image with a specified color by sending additional image frames. The end result is a solid colored rectangle. Not too exciting, but it's easy to imagine interesting extensions: you could use this technique to implement a fade from one image into another. The key points to understand are:

  • This filter does not override setPixels(), so it is extremely fast. In this case, we want the original image to reach the consumer, and there is no reason to save the image in a buffer.
  • Filtering takes place in the image-fetching thread, so it is safe to put the filterprocessing thread to sleep if the image is coming from disk. If the image is in memory, filtering should not sleep because there will be a noticeable performance lag in your program if it does. The DynamicFilter class has a delay parameter to its constructor that lets you control this behavior.
  • This subclass overrides setDimensions() to save the image's dimensions for its own use. It needs to override setHints() because it sends pixels to the consumer in a nonstandard order: it sends the original image, then goes back and starts sending overlays. Likewise, this subclass overrides resendTopDownLeftRight() to do nothing because there is no way the original ImageProducer can replace all the changes with the original Image.
  • imageComplete() is where all the fun happens. Take a special look at the status flags that are returned.

Example 12–8: DynamicFilter Source

import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.*;
public class DynamicFilter extends ImageFilter {
    Color overlapColor;
    int delay;
    int imageWidth;
    int imageHeight;
    int iterations;
    DynamicFilter (int delay, int iterations, Color color) {
        this.delay = delay;
        this.iterations = iterations;
        overlapColor = color;
    }
    public void setDimensions (int width, int height) {
        imageWidth = width;
imageHeight = height;
        consumer.setDimensions (width, height);
    }
    public void setHints (int hints) {
        consumer.setHints (ImageConsumer.RANDOMPIXELORDER);
    }
    public void resendTopDownLeftRight (ImageProducer ip) {
    }
    public void imageComplete (int status) {
        if ((status == IMAGEERROR) || (status == IMAGEABORTED)) {
            consumer.imageComplete (status);
            return;
        } else {
            int xWidth = imageWidth / iterations;
            if (xWidth <= 0)
                xWidth = 1;
            int newPixels[] = new int [xWidth*imageHeight];
            int iColor = overlapColor.getRGB();
            for (int x=0;x<(xWidth*imageHeight);x++)
                newPixels[x] = iColor;
            int t=0;
            for (;t<(imageWidth-xWidth);t+=xWidth) {
                consumer.setPixels(t, 0, xWidth, imageHeight,
                        ColorModel.getRGBdefault(), newPixels, 0, xWidth);
                consumer.imageComplete (ImageConsumer.SINGLEFRAMEDONE);
                try {
                    Thread.sleep (delay);
                } catch (InterruptedException e) {
                    e.printStackTrace();
                }
            }
            int left = imageWidth-t;
            if (left > 0) {
                consumer.setPixels(imageWidth-left, 0, left, imageHeight,
                        ColorModel.getRGBdefault(), newPixels, 0, xWidth);
                consumer.imageComplete (ImageConsumer.SINGLEFRAMEDONE);
            }
            consumer.imageComplete (STATICIMAGEDONE);
        }
    }
}

The DynamicFilter relies on the default setPixels() method to send the original image to the consumer. When the original image has been transferred, the image producer calls this filter's imageComplete() method, which does the real work. Instead of relaying the completion status to the consumer, imageComplete() starts generating its own data: solid rectangles that are all in the overlapColor specified in the constructor. It sends these rectangles to the consumer by calling consumer.setPixels(). After each rectangle, it calls consumer.imageComplete() with the SINGLEFRAMEDONE flag, meaning that it has just finished one frame of a multi-frame sequence. When the rectangles have completely covered the image, the method imageComplete() finally notifies the consumer that the entire image sequence has been transferred by sending the STATICIMAGEDONE flag.

The following code is a simple applet that uses this image filter to produce a new image:

import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.*;
public class DynamicImages extends Applet {
    Image i, j;
    public void init () {
        i = getImage (getDocumentBase(), "rosey.jpg");
        j = createImage (new FilteredImageSource (i.getSource(),
                        new DynamicFilter(250, 10, Color.red)));
    }
    public void paint (Graphics g) {
        g.drawImage (j, 10, 10, this);
    }
}

One final curiosity: the DynamicFilter doesn't make any assumptions about the color model used for the original image. It sends its overlays with the default RGB color model. Therefore, this is one case in which an ImageConsumer may see calls to setPixels() that use different color models.

12.5.2 RGBImageFilter

RGBImageFilter is an abstract subclass of ImageFilter that provides a shortcut for building the most common kind of image filters: filters that independently modify the pixels of an existing image, based only on the pixel's position and color. Because RGBImageFilter is an abstract class, you must subclass it before you can do anything. The only method your subclass must provide is filterRGB(), which produces a new pixel value based on the original pixel and its location. A handful of additional methods are in this class; most of them provide the behind-the-scenes framework for funneling each pixel through the filterRGB() method.

If the filtering algorithm you are using does not rely on pixel position (i.e., the new pixel is based only on the old pixel's color), AWT can apply an optimization for images that use an IndexColorModel: rather than filtering individual pixels, it can filter the image's color map. In order to tell AWT that this optimization is okay, add a constructor to the class definition that sets the canFilterIndexColorModel variable to true. If canFilterIndexColorModel is false (the default) and an IndexColorModel image is sent through the filter, nothing happens to the image.

Variables

protected boolean canFilterIndexColorModel

Setting the canFilterIndexColorModel variable permits the ImageFilter to filter IndexColorModel images. The default value is false. When this variable is false, IndexColorModel images are not filtered. When this variable is true, the ImageFilter filters the colormap instead of the individual pixel values.

protected ColorModel newmodel

The newmodel variable is used to store the new ColorModel when canFilterIndexColorModel is true and the ColorModel actually is of type IndexColorModel. Normally, you do not need to access this variable, even in subclasses.

protected ColorModel origmodel

The origmodel variable stores the original color model when filtering an IndexColorModel. Normally, you do not need to access this variable, even in subclasses.

Constructors

public RGBImageFilter ()—called by subclass

The only constructor for RGBImageFilter is the implied constructor with no parameters. In most subclasses of RGBImageFilter, the constructor has to initialize only the canFilterIndexColorModel variable.

ImageConsumer interface methods

public void setColorModel (ColorModel model)

The setColorModel() method changes the ColorModel of the filter to model. If canFilterIndexColorModel is true and model is of type IndexColorModel, a filtered version of model is used instead.

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int w, int h, ColorModel model, byte pixels[], int off, int scansize)

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int w, int h, ColorModel model, int pixels[], int off, int scansize)

If necessary, the setPixels() method converts the pixels buffer to the default RGB ColorModel and then filters them with filterRGBPixels(). If model has already been converted, this method just passes the pixels along to the consumer's setPixels().

Other methods

The only method you care about here is filterRGB(). All subclasses of RGBImageFilter must override this method. It is very difficult to imagine situations in which you would override (or even call) the other methods in this group. They are helper methods that funnel pixels through filterRGB().

public void substituteColorModel (ColorModel oldModel, ColorModel newModel)

substituteColorModel() is a helper method for setColorModel(). It initializes the protected variables of RGBImageFilter. The origmodel variable is set to oldModel and the newmodel variable is set to newModel.

public IndexColorModel filterIndexColorModel (IndexColorModel icm)

filterIndexColorModel() is another helper method for setColorModel(). It runs the entire color table of icm through filterRGB() and returns the filtered ColorModel for use by setColorModel().

public void filterRGBPixels (int x, int y, int width, int height, int pixels[], int off, int scansize)

filterRGBPixels() is a helper method for setPixels(). It filters each element of the pixels buffer through filterRGB(), converting pixels to the default RGB ColorModel first. This method changes the values in the pixels array.

public abstract int filterRGB (int x, int y, int rgb)

filterRGB() is the one method that RGBImageFilter subclasses must implement. The method takes the rgb pixel value at position (x, y) and returns the converted pixel value in the default RGB ColorModel. Coordinates of (-1, -1) signify that a color table entry is being filtered instead of a pixel.

A transparent image filter that extends RGBImageFilter

Creating your own RGBImageFilter is fairly easy. One of the more common applications for an RGBImageFilter is to make images transparent by setting the alpha component of each pixel. To do so, we extend the abstract RGBImageFilter class. The filter in Example 12-9 makes the entire image translucent, based on a percentage passed to the class constructor. Filtering is independent of position, so the constructor can set the canFilterIndexColorModel variable. A constructor with no arguments uses a default alpha value of 0.75.

Example 12–9: TransparentImageFilter Source

import java.awt.image.*;
class TransparentImageFilter extends RGBImageFilter {
    float alphaPercent;
    public TransparentImageFilter () {
        this (0.75f);
    }
    public TransparentImageFilter (float aPercent)
            throws IllegalArgumentException {
        if ((aPercent < 0.0) || (aPercent > 1.0))
            throw new IllegalArgumentException();
        alphaPercent = aPercent;
        canFilterIndexColorModel = true;
}
public int filterRGB (int x, int y, int rgb) {
        int a = (rgb >> 24) & 0xff;
        a *= alphaPercent;
        return ((rgb & 0x00ffffff) | (a << 24));
    }
}

12.5.3 CropImageFilter

The CropImageFilter is an ImageFilter that crops an image to a rectangular region. When used with FilteredImageSource, it produces a new image that consists of a portion of the original image. The cropped region must be completely within the original image. It is never necessary to subclass this class. Also, using the 10 or 11 argument version of Graphics.drawImage() introduced in Java 1.1 precludes the need to use this filter, unless you need to save the resulting cropped image.

If you crop an image and then send the result through a second ImageFilter, the pixel array received by the filter will be the size of the original Image, with the offset and scansize set accordingly. The width and height are set to the cropped values; the result is a smaller Image with the same amount of data. CropImageFilter keeps the full pixel array around, partially empty.

Constructors

public CropImageFilter (int x, int y, int width, int height) images

The constructor for CropImageFilter specifies the rectangular area of the old image that makes up the new image. The (x, y) coordinates specify the top left corner for the cropped image; width and height must be positive or the resulting image will be empty. If the (x, y) coordinates are outside the original image area, the resulting image is empty. If (x, y) starts within the image but the rectangular area of size width height goes beyond the original image, the part that extends outside will be black. (Remember the color black has pixel values of 0 for red, green, and blue.)

ImageConsumer interface methods

public void setProperties (Hashtable properties) images

The setProperties() method adds the croprect image property to the properties list. The bounding Rectangle, specified by the (x, y) coordinates and width height size, is associated with this property. After updating properties, this method sets the properties list of the consumer.

public void setDimensions (int width, int height) images

The setDimensions() method of CropImageFilter ignores the width and height parameters to the function call. Instead, it relies on the size parameters in the constructor.

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int w, int h, ColorModel model, byte pixels[], int offset, int scansize) images

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int w, int h, ColorModel model, int pixels[], int offset, int scansize) images

These setPixels() methods check to see what portion of the pixels array falls within the cropped area and pass those pixels along.

Cropping an image with CropImageFilter

Example 12-10 uses a CropImageFilter to extract the center third of a larger image. No subclassing is needed; the CropImageFilter is complete in itself. The output is displayed in Figure 12-7.

Example 12–10: Crop Applet Source

import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.*;
public class Crop extends Applet {
    Image i, j;
    public void init () {
        MediaTracker mt = new MediaTracker (this);
        i = getImage (getDocumentBase(), "rosey.jpg");
        mt.addImage (i, 0);
        try {
            mt.waitForAll();
            int width        = i.getWidth(this);
            int height        = i. getHeight(this);
            j = createImage (new FilteredImageSource (i.getSource(),
                                new CropImageFilter (width/3, height/3,
                                                     width/3, height/3)));
        } catch (InterruptedException e) {
            e.printStackTrace();
        }
    }
    public void paint (Graphics g) {
        g.drawImage (i, 10, 10, this);                 // regular
        if (j != null) {
            g.drawImage (j, 10, 90, this);            // cropped
        }
    }
}

images

Figure 12–7: Image cropping example output.

TIP

You can use CropImageFilter to help improve your animation performance or just the general download time of images. Without CropImageFilter, you can use Graphics.clipRect() to clip each image of an image strip when drawing. Instead of clipping each Image (each time), you can use CropImageFilter to create a new Image for each cell of the strip. Or for times when an image strip is inappropriate, you can put all your images within one image file (in any order whatsoever), and use CropImageFilter to get each out as an Image.

12.5.4 ReplicateScaleFilter

Back in Chapter 2 we introduced you to the getScaledInstance() method. This method uses a new image filter that is provided with Java 1.1. The ReplicateScaleFilter and its subclass, AreaAveragingScaleFilter, allow you to scale images before calling drawImage(). This can greatly speed your programs because you don't have to wait for the call to drawImage() before performing scaling.

The ReplicateScaleFilter is an ImageFilter that scales by duplicating or removing rows and columns. When used with FilteredImageSource, it produces a new image that is a scaled version of the original. As you can guess, ReplicateScaleFilter is very fast, but the results aren't particularly pleasing aesthetically. It is great if you want to magnify a checkerboard but not that useful if you want to scale an image of your Aunt Polly. Its subclass, AreaAveragingScaleFilter, implements a more time-consuming algorithm that is more suitable when image quality is a concern.

Constructor

public ReplicateScaleFilter (int width, int height)

The constructor for ReplicateScaleFilter specifies the size of the resulting image. If either parameter is -1, the resulting image maintains the same aspect ratio as the original image.

ImageConsumer interface methods

public void setProperties (Hashtable properties)

The setProperties() method adds the rescale image property to the properties list. The value of the rescale property is a quoted string showing the image's new width and height, in the form "<width>×<height>", where the width and height are taken from the constructor. After updating properties, this method sets the properties list of the consumer.

public void setDimensions (int width, int height)

The setDimensions() method of ReplicateScaleFilter passes the new width and height from the constructor along to the consumer. If either of the constructor's parameters are negative, the size is recalculated proportionally. If both are negative, the size becomes width height.

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int w, int h, ColorModel model, int pixels[], int offset, int scansize)

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int w, int h, ColorModel model, byte pixels[], int offset, int scansize)

The setPixels() method of ReplicateScaleFilter checks to see which rows and columns of pixels to pass along.

12.5.5 AreaAveragingScaleFilter

The AreaAveragingScaleFilter subclasses ReplicateScaleFilter to provide a better scaling algorithm. Instead of just dropping or adding rows and columns, AreaAveragingScaleFilter tries to blend pixel values when creating new rows and columns. The filter works by replicating rows and columns to generate an image that is a multiple of the original size. Then the image is resized back down by an algorithm that blends the pixels around each destination pixel.

AreaAveragingScaleFilter methods

Because this filter subclasses ReplicateScaleFilter, the only methods it includes are those that override methods of ReplicateScaleFilter.

Constructors

public AreaAveragingScaleFilter (int width, int height) images

The constructor for AreaAveragingScaleFilter specifies the size of the resulting image. If either parameter is -1, the resulting image maintains the same aspect ratio as the original image.

ImageConsumer interface methods

public void setHints (int hints) images

The setHints() method of AreaAveragingScaleFilter checks to see if some optimizations can be performed based upon the value of the hints parameter. If they can't, the image filter has to cache the pixel data until it receives the entire image.

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int w, int h, ColorModel model, byte pixels[], int offset, int scansize) images

public void setPixels (int x, int y, int w, int h, ColorModel model, int pixels[], int offset, int scansize) images

The setPixels() method of AreaAveragingScaleFilter accumulates the pixels or passes them along based upon the available hints. If setPixels() accumulates the pixels, this filter passes them along to the consumer when appropriate.

12.5.6 Cascading Filters

It is often a good idea to perform complex filtering operations by using several filters in a chain. This technique requires the system to perform several passes through the image array, so it may be slower than using a single complex filter; however, cascading filters yield code that is easier to understand and quicker to write—particularly if you already have a collection of image filters from other projects.

For example, assume you want to make a color image transparent and then render the image in black and white. The easy way to do this task is to apply a filter that converts color to a gray value and then apply the TransparentImageFilter we developed in Example 12-9. Using this strategy, we have to develop only one very simple filter. Example 12-11 shows the source for the GrayImageFilter; Example 12-12 shows the applet that applies the two filters in a daisy chain.

Example 12–11: GrayImageFilter Source

import java.awt.image.*;
public class GrayImageFilter extends RGBImageFilter {
    public GrayImageFilter () {
        canFilterIndexColorModel = true;
    }
public int filterRGB (int x, int y, int rgb) {
        int gray = (((rgb & 0xff0000) >> 16) +
                        ((rgb & 0x00ff00) >> 8) +
                        (rgb & 0x0000ff)) / 3;
        return (0xff000000 | (gray << 16) | (gray << 8) | gray);
    }
}

Example 12–12: DrawingImages Source

import java.applet.*;
import java.awt.*;
import java.awt.image.*;
public class DrawingImages extends Applet {
    Image i, j, k, l;
    public void init () {
        i = getImage (getDocumentBase(), "rosey.jpg");
        GrayImageFilter gif = new GrayImageFilter ();
        j = createImage (new FilteredImageSource (i.getSource(), gif));
        TransparentImageFilter tf = new TransparentImageFilter (.5f);
        k = createImage (new FilteredImageSource (j.getSource(), tf));
        l = createImage (new FilteredImageSource (i.getSource(), tf));
    }
    public void paint (Graphics g) {
        g.drawImage (i, 10, 10, this); // regular
        g.drawImage (j, 270, 10, this); // gray
        g.drawImage (k, 10, 110, Color.red, this); // gray - transparent
        g.drawImage (l, 270, 110, Color.red, this); // transparent
    }
}

Granted, neither the GrayImageFilter or the TransparentImageFilter are very complex, but consider the savings you would get if you wanted to blur an image, crop it, and then render the result in grayscale. Writing a filter that does all three is not a task for the faint of heart; remember, you can't subclass RGBImageFilter or CropImageFilter because the result does not depend purely on each pixel's color and position. However, you can solve the problem easily by cascading the filters developed in this chapter.

* For more information about PPM and the pbmplus package, see Encyclopedia of Graphics File Formats, by James D. Murray and William VanRyper (from O'Reilly & Associates). See also http://www.acme.com/.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required