Sometimes you start a command by accident or change your mind about it. Don't worry: with Emacs, you can quit in the middle or undo it.
When you want to cancel any command that's in progress, press C-g. The word Quit appears in the command area. This command is helpful when you are stuck in the minibuffer and didn't really mean to go there. Depending on what you were doing, you may have to press C-g a few times.
What happens if you make a mistake while you're editing? You can undo your changes by pressing C-_ or C-x u (for undo; conveniently, the toolbar also has an undo icon, a curved left arrow). By typing undo repeatedly, you can gradually work your way back to a point before your mistake. Although the undo command is very powerful, saving your file frequently, if not compulsively, is nevertheless a good idea. We usually save a file whenever we stop typing—even if only for a few seconds. Train your fingers to press C-x C-s whenever you pause; it's a good habit to form.
If you're used to typing C-z to undo, you can easily change Emacs's behavior to match your habits. See "Making Emacs Work the Way You Want" at the end of this chapter for information on CUA mode.
What if you'd like to redo a command after you type undo? There is no formal redo command, but you can use undo in the following way. Just move the cursor in any direction, and type C-_ or C-x u again. Emacs redoes the last command you undid. You ...