Sawtooth or ramp waveforms are extensively employed in electronic equipment. Two obvious applications are as sources of deflecting signals in oscilloscopes, television cameras and television receivers but they are also used in radar, in test equipment and in analogue-to-digital converters.
Usually sawtooth generators are classified as free-running (astable) which do not require external signals (but can readily be synchronised by such signals) and driven (monostable) which will not operate without external signals.
We can distinguish three principles which can be used to generate a sawtooth waveform. The first uses the initial part of an exponential curve as an approximation to the required linear change. ...