A scientific approach requires the fast experimentation of different hypotheses in a reproducible fashion. Initially named IPython and limited to working only with the Python language, Jupyter was created by Fernando Perez in order to address the need for an interactive Python command shell (which is based on shell, web browser, and the application interface), with graphical integration, customizable commands, rich history (in the JSON format), and computational parallelism for an enhanced performance. Jupyter is our favored choice throughout this book; it is used to clearly and effectively illustrate operations with scripts and data, and the consequent results:

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