CONTENTS

**Preface**

**1** **A BRIEF INTRODUCTION TO INFORMATION THEORY**

Information Content in a Signal

Entropy and Shannon’s Information Theory

Linear Combinations of Vectors

Gram-Schmidt Orthogonalization

The Cauchy-Schwartz and Triangle Inequalities

Representations of Operators Using Matrices

Outer Products and Matrix Representations

Matrix Representation of Operators in Two-Dimensional Spaces

Definition: The Pauli Matrices

Hermitian, Unitary, and Normal Operators

Definition: Hermitian Operator

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