Sales Force Management, 13th Edition

Book description

In this 13th edition of Sales Force Management, Mark Johnston and Greg Marshall continue to build on the book’s reputation as a contemporary classic, fully updated for modern sales management teaching, research, and practice. The authors have strengthened the focus on the use of technology in sales management, offered new discussions on innovative sales practices, and further highlighted sales and marketing integration.

By identifying recent trends and applications, Sales Force Management combines real-world sales management best practices with cutting-edge theory and empirical research in a single, authoritative source. Pedagogical features include:

  • Engaging breakout questions designed to spark lively discussion.
  • Leadership Challenge assignments and Minicases at the end of every chapter to help students understand and apply the principles they have learned in the classroom.
  • Leadership, Innovation, and Technology boxes that simulate real-world challenges faced by salespeople and their managers.
  • Ethical Moment boxes in each chapter put students on the firing line of making ethical choices in sales.
  • Role-Play exercises at the end of each chapter, designed to enable students to learn by doing.
  • A comprehensive selection of updated and revised longer sales management case studies, in the book and on the companion website.

This fully updated new edition offers a thorough and integrated overview of accumulated theory and research relevant to sales management, translated clearly into practical applications—a hallmark of Sales Force Management over the years. It is an invaluable resource for students of sales management at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels.

The companion website features an instructor’s manual, PowerPoints, case studies, and other tools to provide additional support for students and instructors.

Table of contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. Brief Contents
  6. Table of Contents
  7. About the Authors
  8. Preface
    1. Chapter 1: Introduction to Sales Management in the Twenty-First Century
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Sales Management in the Twenty-First Century
        1. Innovation Fuels Success in Selling Today
        2. Sales Effectiveness Is Enhanced through Technology
        3. Leadership Is a Key Component in Sales Management Success
        4. Sales Management Is a Global Endeavor
        5. Ethics Underlies All Selling and Sales Management Activities
      3. What Is Involved in Sales Management
        1. Selling Process
        2. Sales Management Process
      4. Environmental Factors Impact Success in Selling
      5. External Environment
        1. Economic Environment
        2. Global Legal and Political Environment
        3. Technological Environment
        4. Social and Cultural Environment: Ethics
        5. Natural Environment
      6. Internal (Organizational) Environment
        1. Goals, Objectives, and Culture
        2. Human Resources
        3. Financial Resources
        4. Production and Supply Chain Capabilities
        5. Service Capabilities
        6. Research and Development (R&D) and Technological Capabilities
      7. Summary
  9. Part One: Formulation of a Sales Program
    1. Chapter 2: The Process of Selling and Buying
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Drivers of Change in Selling and Sales Management
      3. Overview of Selling as a Career
        1. Why Sales Jobs Are So Rewarding
        2. Key Success Factors in Selling
      4. Selling Activities
      5. Types of Selling Jobs
        1. Selling in Business-to-Consumer versus Business-to-Business Markets
        2. Classifying Types of B2B Sales Jobs
      6. Stages in the Selling Process
        1. Prospecting for Customers
        2. Opening the Relationship
        3. Qualifying the Prospect
        4. Presenting the Sales Message
        5. Closing the Sale
        6. Servicing the Account
      7. Participants in the Organizational Buying Process—The Buying Center
        1. Selling Centers and Buying Centers
      8. Organizational Buying Decision Stages
        1. Stage One: Anticipation or Recognition of a Problem or Need
        2. Stage Two: Determination and Description of the Characteristics and Quantity of the Needed Item(s)
        3. Stage Three: Search for and Qualification of Potential Suppliers
        4. Stage Four: Acquisition of Proposals or Bids
        5. Stage Five: Evaluation of Offerings and Selection of Suppliers
        6. Stage Six: Selection of an Order Routine
        7. Stage Seven: Performance Evaluation and Feedback
      9. The Nature of Organizational Buying Situations
      10. Summary
    2. Chapter 3: Linking Strategies and the Sales Role in the Era of CRM and Data Analytics
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. What Is Customer Relationship Management?
        1. From Mass Marketing to One-to-One Marketing
        2. CRM Process Cycle
        3. Toward a Relationship-Based Enterprise
        4. CRM-Driven Data Analytics for Sales Manager Decision Making
      3. The Importance of Market Orientation
        1. How Market Orientation Affects Performance
        2. Internal Partnering to Create a Market Orientation
      4. The Process of Strategy Development
        1. Company Mission and Goals
        2. SBU Strategy
      5. The Importance of Integrating Sales with Other Business Functions
      6. Personal Selling’s Role in Marketing Strategy
        1. Role of the Relationship
      7. Personal Selling in the Relationship Era
        1. Exploration Stage
        2. Expansion Stage
        3. Commitment Stage
      8. Personal Selling’s Role in the Marketing Communication Mix
        1. Advantages and Disadvantages of Selling in Marketing Communication
        2. Company Resources, Goals, and Marketing Strategy
        3. Characteristics of the Target Market
        4. Product Characteristics
        5. Distribution Practices
        6. Pricing Policies
        7. Computerized Ordering and Customer Alliances
      9. Improving Customer Satisfaction and Loyalty through Feedback
        1. Major Account Teams
      10. Summary
    3. Chapter 4: Organizing the Sales Effort
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. The Increasing Importance of Sales Organization Decisions
      3. Purposes of Sales Organization
        1. Division and Specialization of Labor
        2. Stability and Continuity of Organizational Performance
        3. Coordination and Integration
      4. Horizontal Structure of the Sales Force
        1. Deciding on a Company Sales Force or Independent Agents
        2. Geographic Organization
        3. Product Organization
        4. Organization by Customer Type or Markets
        5. Organization by Selling Function
        6. The Role of Telemarketing
      5. Organizing to Service Key Accounts
        1. Team Selling
        2. Multilevel Selling
        3. Co-marketing Alliances
        4. Logistical Alliances and Computerized Ordering
      6. Vertical Structure of the Sales Organization
        1. Selling Responsibilities
        2. Sales-Related Functions
        3. The Impact of New Technologies
        4. Staff Support and Outsourcing
      7. Additional Sales Organizational Issues
      8. Summary
    4. Chapter 5: The Strategic Role of Information in Sales Management
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Using Information in Managerial Decision Making and Planning
      3. Introduction to Market Opportunity Analysis
      4. Methods of Sales Forecasting
        1. Subjective Methods of Forecasting
        2. Objective Methods of Forecasting
      5. Choosing a Forecasting Method
      6. Developing Territory Estimates
      7. Purposes and Characteristics of Sales Quotas
        1. Purposes of Quotas
        2. Characteristics of a Good Quota
      8. Setting Quotas
        1. Types of Quotas
        2. Quota Level
      9. Determining Sales Force Size
        1. Breakdown Method
        2. Workload Method
        3. Incremental Method
      10. Designing Sales Territories
        1. Stages in Sales Territory Design
      11. Sales Analysis for Managerial Decision Making
        1. Type of Evaluation System
        2. Sources of Information for Sales Analysis
        3. Type of Aggregation of Information to Be Used in Sales Analysis
        4. Illustration of a Hierarchical Sales Analysis
      12. Summary
  10. Part Two: Implementation of the Sales Program
    1. Chapter 6: Salesperson Performance: Behavior, Role Perceptions, and Satisfaction
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Understanding Salesperson Performance—Why Is It Important for Sales Management?
      3. The Model
        1. The Role Perceptions Component
        2. The Aptitude Component
        3. The Skill-Level Component
        4. The Motivation Component
        5. The Personal, Organizational, and Environmental Variables Component
      4. Rewards
      5. Satisfaction
      6. The Salesperson’s Role Perceptions
      7. Stages in Developing the Salesperson’s Role
        1. Stage 1: Role Partners Communicate Expectations
        2. Stage 2: Salespeople Develop Perceptions
        3. Stage 3: Salespeople Convert Perceptions into Behaviors
      8. The Salesperson’s Role Is Vulnerable
        1. Boundary Position
        2. Large Role Set
        3. Innovative Role
      9. Role Conflict and Ambiguity
        1. Common Expectations and Key Areas of Conflict and Ambiguity
        2. Consequences of Conflict and Ambiguity
        3. Managing Conflict and Ambiguity in a Salesperson
      10. Role Accuracy
        1. Nature of Role Accuracy
      11. Summary
    2. Chapter 7: Salesperson Performance: Motivating the Sales Force
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. The Psychological Process of Motivation
        1. Major Components of the Model
        2. Expectancies—Perceived Links between Effort and Performance
        3. Instrumentalities—Perceived Links between Performance and Rewards
        4. Valences for Rewards
      3. Can the Motivation Model Predict Salesperson Effort and Performance?
      4. The Impact of a Salesperson’s Personal Characteristics on Motivation
        1. Satisfaction
        2. Demographic Characteristics
        3. Job Experience
        4. Psychological Traits
        5. Performance Attributions
        6. Management Implications
      5. Career Stages and Salesperson Motivation
        1. Career Stages
        2. The Problem of the Plateaued Salesperson
      6. The Impact of Environmental Conditions on Motivation
      7. The Impact of Organizational Variables on Motivation
        1. Supervisory Variables and Leadership
        2. Incentive and Compensation Policies
      8. Summary
    3. Chapter 8: Personal Characteristics and Sales Aptitude: Criteria for Selecting Salespeople
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Are Good Salespeople Born or Made? The Determinants of Successful Sales Performance
        1. A Review of Past Research
        2. The Costs of Inappropriate Selection Standards
      3. Characteristics of Successful Salespeople
        1. Characteristics Sales Managers Look For
        2. Research Concerning the Personal Characteristics of Successful Salespeople
        3. Overview of Findings
      4. Job-Specific Determinants of Good Sales Performance
        1. Selling Different Types of Products and Services
        2. Different Types of Sales Jobs
      5. Implications for Sales Management
      6. Summary
    4. Chapter 9: Sales Force Recruitment and Selection
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Recruitment and Selection Issues
      3. Who Is Responsible for Recruiting and Selecting Salespeople?
      4. Job Analysis and Determination of Selection Criteria
        1. Who Conducts the Analysis and Prepares the Description?
        2. Content of the Job Description
        3. Determining Job Qualifications and Selection Criteria
        4. Methods for Deciding on Selection Criteria
      5. Recruiting Applicants
        1. External Sources
      6. Selection Procedures
        1. Application Blanks
        2. Personal Interviews
        3. Physical Examinations
        4. Tests
        5. Concerns about the Use of Tests
        6. Guidelines for the Appropriate Use of Tests
      7. Equal Employment Opportunity Requirements in Selecting Salespeople
        1. Requirements for Tests
        2. Requirements for Interviews and Application Blanks
      8. Summary
    5. Chapter 10: Sales Training: Objectives, Techniques, and Evaluation
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Issues in Sales Training
      3. Objectives of Sales Training
        1. Increase Productivity
        2. Improve Morale
        3. Lower Turnover
        4. Improve Customer Relations
        5. Improve Selling Skills
      4. The Development of Sales Training Programs
        1. Creating Credibility in Sales Training
      5. Training New Sales Recruits
      6. Training Experienced Sales Personnel
      7. Sales Training Topics
        1. Product Knowledge
        2. Market/Industry Orientation
        3. Company Orientation
        4. Time and Territory Management
        5. Legal/Ethical Issues
        6. Technology
        7. Specialized Training Topics
      8. Sales Training Methods
        1. On-the-Job Training
        2. Classroom Training
        3. Electronic Training Methods
      9. Measuring the Costs and Benefits of Sales Training
        1. Sales Training Costs
        2. Measurement Criteria
        3. Measuring Broad Benefits
        4. Measuring Specific Benefits
        5. Recent Trends in Sales Training Evaluation
      10. Summary
    6. Chapter 11: Salesperson Compensation and Incentives
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Overview of Compensation and Incentives
      3. Straight Salary, Straight Commission, and Combination Plans
        1. Straight Salary
        2. Straight Commission
        3. Combination Plans
        4. Steps to Executing the Compensation Plan
      4. Sales Contests
        1. Contest Objectives
        2. Contest Themes
        3. Probability of Winning
        4. Types of Contest Rewards
        5. Contest Promotion and Follow-through
        6. Criticism of Sales Contests
      5. Nonfinancial Rewards
      6. Recognition Programs
      7. Expense Accounts
        1. Direct Reimbursement Plans
        2. Limited Reimbursement Plans
        3. No Reimbursement Plans
      8. Making Compensation and Incentive Programs Work
        1. Assessing the Relationship Selling Objectives
        2. Determining Which Aspects of Job Performance to Reward
      9. Deciding on the Most Appropriate Mix and Level of Compensation
        1. Dangers of Paying Salespeople Too Much
        2. Dangers of Paying Salespeople Too Little
        3. Changing the Compensation Plan
      10. Summary
  11. Part Three: Evaluation and Control of the Sales Program
    1. Chapter 12: Cost Analysis
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Cost Analysis Development
        1. Full Cost versus Contribution Margin
        2. ABC Accounting
      3. Procedure
      4. The Process Illustrated
        1. Direct Selling
        2. Advertising
        3. Warehousing and Shipping
        4. Order Processing
        5. Transportation
        6. Promise and Problems
        7. Return of Assets Managed
      5. Summary
    2. Chapter 13: Evaluating Salesperson Performance
      1. Learning Objectives
      2. Performance versus Effectiveness
      3. Objective Measures
        1. Output Measures
        2. Input Measures
        3. Ratio Measures
      4. Summary of Objective Measures
      5. Subjective Measures
        1. Forms Used for Subjective Measurement
        2. Avoiding Errors in Performance Evaluation
        3. Using a BARS System
      6. 360-Degree Feedback in Performance Evaluation
      7. Summary
  12. Endnotes
  13. Index

Product information

  • Title: Sales Force Management, 13th Edition
  • Author(s): Mark W. Johnston, Greg W. Marshall
  • Release date: December 2020
  • Publisher(s): Routledge
  • ISBN: 9781000317510