The sendmail program is actually composed of several parts, including programs, files, directories, and the services it provides. Its foundation is a configuration file that defines the location and behavior of these other parts and contains rules for rewriting addresses. A queue directory holds mail until it can be delivered. An aliases file allows alternative names for users and the creation of mailing lists. Database files can handle tasks ranging from spam rejection to virtual hosting.
Rewriting rules and rule sets also appear in the configuration file. They transform a mail address into another form that might be required for delivery. They are perhaps the single most confusing aspect of the configuration file. Because the configuration file is designed to be fast for sendmail to read and parse, rules can look cryptic to humans:
R $+ @ $+ $: $1 < @ $2 > focus on domain R $+ < $+ @ $+ > $1 $2 < @ $3 > move gaze right
But what appears to be complex is really just succinct. The
R at the beginning of each line, for example,
labels a rewrite rule. And the
$+ expressions mean to match one or more parts of
an address. With experience, such expressions (and indeed the
configuration file as a whole) soon become meaningful.
Fortunately you don’t need to learn the details of rule sets to configure and install sendmail. The mc form of configuration insulates you from such details, and allows you to perform very complex tasks easily.
Not all mail messages can be delivered immediately. When delivery is delayed, sendmail must be able to save a message for later transmission. The sendmail queue comprises one or more directories that hold mail until it can be delivered. A mail message can be queued:
When the destination machine is unreachable or down. The mail message will be delivered when the destination machine returns to service.
When a mail message has many recipients. Some mail messages might be successfully delivered but others might not. Those that have transient failures are queued for later delivery.
When a mail message is expensive. Expensive mail (such as mail sent over a long-distance phone line) can be queued for delivery when rates are lower.
When (beginning with V8.11) authentication or stream encryption suffers a temporary failure to start, the message is queued for a later try.
Always because safety is a primary concern. The sendmail program is configured to queue all mail messages by default, thus minimizing the risk of loss should the machine crash.
Aliases allow mail that is sent to one address to be redirected to another address. They also allow mail to be appended to files or piped through programs, and form the basis of mailing lists. The heart of aliasing is the aliases(5) file (often stored in database format for swifter lookups). Aliasing is also available to the individual user via a file called .forward in the user’s home directory.