All truth passes through three stages. First, it is ridiculed. Second, it is violently opposed. Third, it is accepted as being self-evident.


In 1539, a Polish doctor, economist, mathematician, and part-time astronomer named Nicolaus Copernicus published a paper he had been working on for some years. The paper explained a strange idea: The earth revolves around the sun.2 His idea flew in the face of common sense. Everybody knew from direct evidence of their own eyes that the sun revolves around the earth. Each day, people from their motionless position on the firm solid earth saw the sun rise in the east, travel across the sky, and set in the west. It was obviously so. Copernicus was saying: “Forget ...

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