Why Productivity Tumbles with Size

The Old:Large teams become increasingly inefficient as coordination becomes more difficult.
The New:Large teams become increasingly inefficient as people try less hard.
The Challenge:How to eradicate social loafing.

Why do American football teams have eleven players; Canadian football, twelve; and Gaelic, fifteen? And why eleven in soccer? Why does Rugby Union have fifteen players, while Rugby League makes do with thirteen? Why does baseball field nine players; basketball, five; volleyball, six; water polo, seven; and cricket, eleven? Why are there six players in ice hockey, but eleven in its grassy equivalent?

Simple as these questions might be, they are deceptively difficult to answer. In the case of ...

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