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Transformer Engineering, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Transformer Engineering: Design, Technology, and Diagnostics, Second Edition helps you design better transformers, apply advanced numerical field computations more effectively, and tackle operational and maintenance issues. Building on the bestselling Transformer Engineering: Design and Practice, this greatly expanded second edition also emphasizes diagnostic aspects and transformer-system interactions.

What’s New in This Edition

  • Three new chapters on electromagnetic fields in transformers, transformer-system interactions and modeling, and monitoring and diagnostics
  • An extensively revised chapter on recent trends in transformer technology
  • An extensively updated chapter on short-circuit strength, including failure mechanisms and safety factors
  • A step-by-step procedure for designing a transformer
  • Updates throughout, reflecting advances in the field

A blend of theory and practice, this comprehensive book examines aspects of transformer engineering, from design to diagnostics. It thoroughly explains electromagnetic fields and the finite element method to help you solve practical problems related to transformers. Coverage includes important design challenges, such as eddy and stray loss evaluation and control, transient response, short-circuit withstand and strength, and insulation design. The authors also give pointers for further research. Students and engineers starting their careers will appreciate the sample design of a typical power transformer.

Presenting in-depth explanations, modern computational techniques, and emerging trends, this is a valuable reference for those working in the transformer industry, as well as for students and researchers. It offers guidance in optimizing and enhancing transformer design, manufacturing, and condition monitoring to meet the challenges of a highly competitive market.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Table of Contents
  6. Preface to the second edition
  7. Foreword to the first edition
  8. Preface to the first edition
  9. Acknowledgments
  10. 1 Transformer Fundamentals
    1. 1.1 Perspective
    2. 1.2 Applications and Types of Transformers
    3. 1.3 Principles and the Equivalent Circuit
    4. 1.4 Representation of a Transformer in a Power System
    5. 1.5 Open-Circuit and Short-Circuit Tests
    6. 1.6 Voltage Regulation and Efficiency
    7. 1.7 Parallel Operation of Transformers
    8. References
  11. 2 Magnetic Characteristics
    1. 2.1 Construction
    2. 2.2 Hysteresis, Eddy, and Anomalous Losses
    3. 2.3 Excitation Characteristics
    4. 2.4 Over-Excitation Performance
    5. 2.5 No-Load Loss Test
    6. 2.6 Impact of Manufacturing Processes
    7. 2.7 Inrush Current
    8. 2.8 Influence of the Core Construction and Winding Connections on No-Load Harmonic Phenomenon
    9. 2.9 Transformer Noise
    10. 2.10 Rotational Core Losses
    11. References
  12. 3 Impedance Characteristics
    1. 3.1 Reactance Calculation
    2. 3.2 Different Approaches for Reactance Calculation
    3. 3.3 Analytical Methods
    4. 3.4 Numerical Method for Reactance Calculation
    5. 3.5 Impedance Characteristics of Three-Winding Transformers
    6. 3.6 Reactance Calculation for Zigzag Transformers
    7. 3.7 Zero-Sequence Reactances
    8. 3.8 Stabilizing Tertiary Winding
    9. References
  13. 4 Eddy Currents and Winding Stray Losses
    1. 4.1 Field Equations
    2. 4.2 Poynting Vector
    3. 4.3 Eddy Current and Hysteresis Losses
    4. 4.4 Effect of Saturation
    5. 4.5 Eddy Losses in Transformer Windings
    6. 4.6 Circulating Current Loss in Transformer Windings
    7. References
  14. 5 Stray Losses in Structural Components
    1. 5.1 Factors Influencing Stray Losses
    2. 5.2 Overview of Methods for Stray Loss Estimation
    3. 5.3 Core Edge Loss
    4. 5.4 Stray Loss in Frames
    5. 5.5 Stray Loss in Flitch Plates
    6. 5.6 Stray Loss in Tank
    7. 5.7 Stray Loss in Bushing Mounting Plates
    8. 5.8 Evaluation of Stray Loss Due to High Current Leads
    9. 5.9 Measures for Stray Loss Control
    10. 5.10 Methods for Experimental Verification
    11. 5.11 Estimation of Stray Losses in Overexcitation Condition
    12. 5.12 Load Loss Measurement
    13. References
  15. 6 Short-Circuit Stresses and Strength
    1. 6.1 Short-Circuit Currents
    2. 6.2 Thermal Capability during a Short-Circuit
    3. 6.3 Short-Circuit Forces
    4. 6.4 Dynamic Behavior under Short-Circuits
    5. 6.5 Failure Modes Due to Radial Forces
    6. 6.6 Failure Modes Due to Axial Forces
    7. 6.7 Failure Modes Due to Interactive (Combined Axial and Radial) Forces
    8. 6.8 Effect of Prestress
    9. 6.9 Short-Circuit Test
    10. 6.10 Effect of Inrush Current
    11. 6.11 Split-Winding Transformers
    12. 6.12 Short-Circuit Withstand
    13. 6.13 Calculation of Electrodynamic Force between Parallel Conductors
    14. 6.14 Design of Clamping Structures
    15. References
  16. 7 Surge Phenomena in Transformers
    1. 7.1 Initial Voltage Distribution
    2. 7.2 Ground Capacitance Calculations
    3. 7.3 Capacitance of Windings
    4. 7.4 Inductance Calculation
    5. 7.5 Standing Waves and Traveling Waves
    6. 7.6 Methods for Analysis of Impulse Distribution
    7. 7.7 Computation of Impulse Voltage Distribution Using State Variable Method
    8. 7.8 Winding Design for Reducing Internal Overvoltages
    9. References
  17. 8 Insulation Design
    1. 8.1 Calculation of Stresses for Simple Configurations
    2. 8.2 Field Computations
    3. 8.3 Factors Affecting Insulation Strength
    4. 8.4 Test Methods and Design Insulation Level (DIL)
    5. 8.5 Insulation between Two Windings
    6. 8.6 Internal Insulation
    7. 8.7 Design of End Insulation
    8. 8.8 High-Voltage Lead Clearances
    9. 8.9 Statistical Analysis for Optimization and Quality Enhancement
    10. References
  18. 9 Cooling Systems
    1. 9.1 Modes of Heat Transfer
    2. 9.2 Cooling Arrangements
    3. 9.3 Dissipation of Core Heat
    4. 9.4 Dissipation of Winding Heat
    5. 9.5 Aging and Life Expectancy
    6. 9.6 Direct Hot Spot Measurement
    7. 9.7 Static Electrification Phenomenon
    8. 9.8 Recent Trends in Computations
    9. References
  19. 10 Structural Design
    1. 10.1 Importance of Structural Design
    2. 10.2 Different Types of Loads and Tests
    3. 10.3 Classification of Transformer Tanks
    4. 10.4 Tank Design
    5. 10.5 Methods of Analysis
    6. 10.6 Overpressure Phenomenon in Transformers
    7. 10.7 Seismic Analysis
    8. 10.8 Transformer Noise: Characteristics and Reduction
    9. 10.9 Transport Vibrations and Shocks
    10. References
  20. 11 Special Transformers
    1. 11.1 Rectifier Transformers
    2. 11.2 Converter Transformers for HVDC
    3. 11.3 Furnace Transformers
    4. 11.4 Phase Shifting Transformers
    5. References
  21. 12 Electromagnetic Fields in Transformers: Theory and Computations
    1. 12.1 Perspective
    2. 12.2 Basics of Electromagnetic Fields Relevant to Transformer Engineering
    3. 12.3 Potential Formulations
    4. 12.4 Finite Element Method
    5. 12.5 FEM Formulations
    6. 12.6 Coupled Fields in Transformers
    7. 12.7 Computation of Performance Parameters
    8. References
  22. 13 Transformer–System Interactions and Modeling
    1. 13.1 Power Flow Analysis with Transformers
    2. 13.2 Harmonic Studies
    3. 13.3 Ferroresonance
    4. 13.4 Arc Furnace Application
    5. 13.5 Geomagnetic Disturbances
    6. 13.6 Sympathetic Inrush Phenomenon
    7. 13.7 Internal Resonances Due to System Transients
    8. 13.8 Very Fast Transient Overvoltages
    9. 13.9 Transients in Distribution Transformers
    10. 13.10 Low-, Mid-, and High-Frequency Models of Transformers
    11. References
  23. 14 Monitoring and Diagnostics
    1. 14.1 Conventional Tests
    2. 14.2 Dissolved Gas Analysis
    3. 14.3 Partial Discharge Diagnostics
    4. 14.4 Degree of Polymerization and Furan Analysis
    5. 14.5 Time Domain Dielectric Response Methods
    6. 14.6 Frequency Domain Dielectric Response Method
    7. 14.7 Detection of Winding Displacements
    8. 14.8 Accessories
    9. 14.9 Other Diagnostic Tests/Instruments
    10. 14.10 Life Assessment and Refurbishment
    11. References
  24. 15 Recent Trends in Transformer Technology
    1. 15.1 Magnetic Circuit
    2. 15.2 Windings
    3. 15.3 New Insulating Liquids
    4. 15.4 Advanced Computations
    5. 15.5 Transformers for Renewable Energy Applications
    6. 15.6 Applications of Power Electronics
    7. 15.7 Other Technologies
    8. 15.8 Trends in Monitoring and Diagnostics
    9. References
  25. Appendix A: Sample Design
  26. Appendix B: Vector Groups
  27. Appendix C: Fault Calculations
  28. Appendix D: Stress and Capacitance Formulae
  29. Index