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Wireless and Guided Wave Electromagnetics

Book Description

Wireless communications allow high-speed mobile access to a global Internet based on ultra-wideband backbone intercontinental and terrestrial networks. Both of these environments support the carrying of information via electromagnetic waves that are wireless (in free air) or guided through optical fibers. Wireless and Guided Wave Electromagnetics: Fundamentals and Applications explores the fundamental aspects of electromagnetic waves in wireless media and wired guided media. This is an essential subject for engineers and physicists working with communication technologies, mobile networks, and optical communications.

This comprehensive book:

  • Builds from the basics to modern topics in electromagnetics for wireless and optical fiber communication
  • Examines wireless radiation and the guiding of optical waves, which are crucial for carrying high-speed information in long-reach optical networking scenarios
  • Explains the physical phenomena and practical aspects of guiding optical waves that may not require detailed electromagnetic solutions
  • Explores applications of electromagnetic waves in optical communication systems and networks based on frequency domain transfer functions in the linear regions, which simplifies the physical complexity of the waves but still allows them to be examined from a system engineering perspective
  • Uses MATLAB® and Simulink® models to simulate and illustrate the electromagnetic fields
  • Includes worked examples, laboratory exercises, and problem sets to test understanding

The book’s modular structure makes it suitable for a variety of courses, for self-study, or as a resource for research and development. Throughout, the author emphasizes issues commonly faced by engineers. Going a step beyond traditional electromagnetics textbooks, this book highlights specific uses of electromagnetic waves with a focus on the wireless and optical technologies that are increasingly important for high-speed transmission over very long distances.

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Half Title
  3. Title Page
  4. Copyright Page
  5. Dedication
  6. Table of Contents
  7. Preface
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. About the Author
  10. Chapter 1 Electric and Magnetic Fields and Waves
    1. 1.1 Brief Overview
    2. 1.2 Wave Representation
      1. 1.2.1 Overview
      2. 1.2.2 General Property
      3. 1.2.3 Waves by Phasor Representation
      4. 1.2.4 Phase Velocity
    3. 1.3 Maxwell’s Equations
      1. 1.3.1 Faraday’s Law
      2. 1.3.2 Ampere’s Law
      3. 1.3.3 Gauss’s Law for Electric Field and Charges
      4. 1.3.4 Gauss’s Law for Magnetic Field
    4. 1.4 Maxwell Equations in Dielectric Media
      1. 1.4.1 Maxwell Equations
      2. 1.4.2 Wave Equation
      3. 1.4.3 Boundary Conditions
      4. 1.4.4 Reciprocity Theorems
    5. 1.5 Current Continuity
    6. 1.6 Lossless TEM Waves
    7. 1.7 Maxwell’s Equations in Time-Harmonic and Phasor Forms
    8. 1.8 Plane Waves
      1. 1.8.1 General Wave Equations
      2. 1.8.2 Time-Harmonic Wave Equation
    9. Reference
  11. Chapter 2 Electrical Transmission Lines
    1. 2.1 Model of Time-Harmonic Waves on Transmission Lines
      1. 2.1.1 Distributed Model of Transmission Lines
      2. 2.1.2 Time-Harmonic Waves on Transmission Lines
    2. 2.2 Terminated Transmission Lines
      1. 2.2.1 Terminated Line
      2. 2.2.2 Reflection Coefficient
      3. 2.2.3 Input Line Impedance
    3. 2.3 Smith Chart
    4. 2.4 Impedance Matching
    5. 2.5 Equipment
      1. 2.5.1 Apparatus
      2. 2.5.2 Experimental Setup
      3. 2.5.3 Notes on the Slotted Lines
      4. 2.5.4 Experiment
      5. 2.5.5 Time-Domain Reflectometry
    6. 2.6 Concluding Remarks
    7. 2.7 Problems
      1. 2.7.1 Problem on TDR Operation on Transmission and Reflection
      2. 2.7.2 Problem on Transmission Line
      3. 2.7.3 Problem on Slotted Transmission Line Experiment
      4. 2.7.4 Problems on Transmission Lines
    8. Reference
  12. Chapter 3 Antennae
    1. 3.1 Introduction
      1. 3.1.1 Differential Doublet and Dipole Antenna
      2. 3.1.2 Far Field
      3. 3.1.3 Near Field
      4. 3.1.4 Linear Antenna Current Distribution
    2. 3.2 Radiating Fields
      1. 3.2.1 Radian Field of Hertzian Antenna
      2. 3.2.2 Standing Wave Antenna: The Half-Wave Dipole Antenna
      3. 3.2.3 Monopole Antenna
      4. 3.2.4 Traveling Wave Antenna
      5. 3.2.5 Omnidirectional Antenna
      6. 3.2.6 Horn Waveguide Antenna
    3. 3.3 Antenna Figure of Merit
    4. 3.4 Experiment
      1. 3.4.1 Background
      2. 3.4.2 Measurement of the Monopole Antenna Admittance
    5. 3.5 Concluding Remarks
    6. 3.6 Appendix: Metallic Waveguide
      1. 3.6.1 Brief Concept
      2. 3.6.2 Experiment on Waveguide
    7. 3.7 Problems
      1. 3.7.1 Waveguide Measurements
      2. 3.7.2 Antenna Admittance
      3. 3.7.3 Waveguide
    8. References
  13. Chapter 4 Planar Optical Waveguides
    1. 4.1 Introduction
    2. 4.2 Formation of Planar Single-Mode Waveguide Problems
      1. 4.2.1 TE/TM Wave Equation
    3. 4.3 Approximate Analytical Methods of Solution
      1. 4.3.1 Asymmetrical Waveguides
      2. 4.3.2 Symmetrical Waveguides
      3. 4.3.3 Concluding Remarks
    4. 4.4 Design and Simulations of Planar Optical Waveguides: Experiments
      1. 4.4.1 Introduction
      2. 4.4.2 Theoretical Background
      3. 4.4.3 Simulation of Optical Fields and Propagation in Slab Optical Waveguide Structures
    5. 4.5 Appendix A: Exact Analysis of Clad Linear Optical Waveguides
      1. 4.5.1 Asymmetrical Clad Linear Profile
      2. 4.5.2 Symmetrical Waveguide
    6. 4.6 Appendix B: WKB Method, Turning Points, and Connection Formulae
      1. 4.6.1 Introduction
      2. 4.6.2 Derivation of the WKB Approximate Solutions
      3. 4.6.3 Turning Point Corrections
      4. 4.6.4 Correction Formulae
      5. 4.6.5 Application of Correction Formulae
    7. 4.7 Problems
      1. 4.7.1 Problem 1
      2. 4.7.2 Problem 2
      3. 4.7.3 Problem 3
      4. 4.7.4 Problem 4
    8. References
  14. Chapter 5 Three-Dimensional Optical Waveguides
    1. 5.1 Introduction
    2. 5.2 Marcatilli’s Method
      1. 5.2.1 Field and Modes Guided in Rectangular Optical Waveguides
      2. 5.2.2 Dispersion Characteristics
    3. 5.3 Effective Index Method
      1. 5.3.1 General Considerations
      2. 5.3.2 Pseudowaveguide
    4. 5.4 Finite Difference Numerical Techniques for 3D Waveguides
      1. 5.4.1 Nonuniform Grid Semivectorial Polarized Finite Difference Method for Optical Waveguides with Arbitrary Index Profile
      2. 5.4.2 Ti:LiNbO3-Diffused Channel Waveguide
    5. 5.5 Mode Modeling of Rib Waveguides
      1. 5.5.1 Choice of Grid Size
      2. 5.5.2 Numerical Results
      3. 5.5.3 Higher-Order Modes
    6. 5.6 Conclusions
    7. References
  15. Chapter 6 Optical Fibers: Single- and Few-Mode Structures and Guiding Properties
    1. 6.1 Optical Fibers: Circular Optical Waveguides
      1. 6.1.1 General Aspects
      2. 6.1.2 Optical Fiber: General Properties
      3. 6.1.3 Fundamental Mode of Weakly Guiding Fibers
      4. 6.1.4 Equivalent Step Index Description
    2. 6.2 Special Fibers
    3. 6.3 Nonlinear Optical Effects
      1. 6.3.1 Nonlinear Self-Phase Modulation Effects
      2. 6.3.2 Self-Phase Modulation
      3. 6.3.3 Cross-Phase Modulation
      4. 6.3.4 Stimulated Scattering Effects
    4. 6.4 Optical Fiber Manufacturing and Cabling
    5. 6.5 Concluding Remarks
    6. 6.6 Problems
      1. 6.6.1 Problem 1
      2. 6.6.2 Problem 2
      3. 6.6.3 Problem 3
      4. 6.6.4 Problem 4
      5. 6.6.5 Problem 5
      6. 6.6.6 Problem 6
      7. 6.6.7 Problem 7
      8. 6.6.8 Problem 8
      9. 6.6.9 Problem 9
      10. 6.6.10 Problem 10
    7. Appendix 6.1: Technical Specification of Corning Single-Mode Optical Fibers
    8. References
  16. Chapter 7 Optical Fiber Operational Parameters
    1. 7.1 Introductory Remarks
    2. 7.2 Signal Attenuation in Optical Fibers
      1. 7.2.1 Intrinsic or Material Attenuation
      2. 7.2.2 Absorption
      3. 7.2.3 Rayleigh Scattering
      4. 7.2.4 Waveguide Loss
      5. 7.2.5 Bending Loss
      6. 7.2.6 Microbending Loss
      7. 7.2.7 Joint or Splice Loss
      8. 7.2.8 Attenuation Coefficient
    3. 7.3 Signal Distortion in Optical Fibers
      1. 7.3.1 Basics on Group Velocity
      2. 7.3.2 Group Velocity Dispersion
      3. 7.3.3 Transmission Bit Rate and the Dispersion Factor
      4. 7.3.4 Effects of Mode Hopping
    4. 7.4 Advanced Optical Fibers: Dispersion-Shifted, -Flattened, and -Compensated Optical Fibers
    5. 7.5 Propagation of Optical Signals in Optical Fiber Transmission Line: Split-Step Fourier Method
      1. 7.5.1 Symmetrical Split-Step Fourier Method (SSFM)
      2. 7.5.2 MATLAB® Program and MATLAB Simulink® Models of the SSFM
      3. 7.5.3 Remarks
    6. Appendix 7.1: Program Listings for Design of Standard Single-Mode Fiber
    7. Appendix 7.2: Program Listings of the Design of Non-Zero-Dispersion-Shifted Fiber
    8. 7.6 Problems
      1. 7.6.1 Problem 1
      2. 7.6.2 Problem 2
      3. 7.6.3 Problem 3
      4. 7.6.4 Problem 4
      5. 7.6.5 Problem 5
      6. 7.6.6 Problem 6
      7. 7.6.7 Problem 7
      8. 7.6.8 Problem 8
      9. 7.6.9 Problem 9
      10. 7.6.10 Problem 10
      11. 7.6.11 Problem 11
      12. 7.6.12 Problem 12
      13. 7.6.13 Problem 13: Fiber Design Mini-Project
    9. References
  17. Chapter 8 Guided Wave Optical Transmission Lines: Transfer Functions
    1. 8.1 Transfer Function of Single-Mode Fibers
      1. 8.1.1 Linear Transfer Function
      2. 8.1.2 Single-Mode Optical Fiber Transfer Function: Simplified Linear and Nonlinear Operating Regions
      3. 8.1.3 Nonlinear Fiber Transfer Function
    2. 8.2 Fiber Nonlinearity
      1. 8.2.1 SPM and XPM Effects
      2. 8.2.2 Modulation Instability
      3. 8.2.3 Effects of Mode Hopping
    3. 8.3 Nonlinear Fiber Transfer Functions and Application in Compensations
      1. 8.3.1 Cascades of Linear and Nonlinear Transfer Functions in Time and Frequency Domains
      2. 8.3.2 Volterra Nonlinear Transfer Function and Electronic Compensation
      3. 8.3.3 SPM and Intrachannel Nonlinear Effects
    4. 8.4 Concluding Remarks
    5. Appendix 8.1: Program Listings of Split-Step Fourier Method (SSFM) with Nonlinear SPM Effect and Raman Gain Distribution
    6. Appendix 8.2: Program Listings of an Initialization File
    7. References
  18. Chapter 9 Fourier Guided Wave Optics
    1. Abbreviations
    2. 9.1 Introduction
    3. 9.2 Background: Fourier Transformation
      1. 9.2.1 Basic Transform
      2. 9.2.2 Optical Circuitry Implementation
      3. 9.2.3 Optical DFT by Mach–Zehnder Delay Interferometers (MZDIs)
      4. 9.2.4 Fourier Transform Signal Flow and Optical Implementation
      5. 9.2.5 AWG Structure and Characteristics
    4. 9.3 Guided Wave Wavelet Transformer
      1. 9.3.1 Wavelet Transformation and Wavelet Packets
      2. 9.3.2 Fiber Optic Synthesis
      3. 9.3.3 Synthesis Using Multimode Interference Structure
      4. 9.3.4 Remarks
    5. 9.4 Optical Orthogonal Frequency Division Multiplexing
    6. 9.5 Nyquist Orthogonal Channels for Tbps Optical Transmission Systems
    7. 9.6 Design of Optical Waveguides for Optical FFT and IFFT
    8. 9.7 Concluding Remarks
    9. Appendix 9.1
    10. References
  19. Appendix: Vector Analysis
  20. Index