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C++ Primer Plus, Fourth Edition by Stephen Prata

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An Overview of C++ Input and Output

Most computer languages build input and output into the language itself. For example, if you look through the lists of keywords for languages like BASIC or Pascal, you'll see that PRINT statements, writeln statements, and the like, are part of the language vocabulary. But neither C nor C++ have built input and output into the language. If you look through the keywords for these languages, you find for and if, but nothing relating to I/O. C originally left I/O to compiler implementers. One reason for this was to give implementers the freedom to design I/O functions that best fit the hardware requirements of the target computer. In practice, most implementers based I/O on a set of library functions originally ...

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