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Fluid Statics

Archimedes’ finding that the crown was of gold was a discovery; but he invented the method of determining the density of solids. Indeed, discoverers must generally be inventors; though inventors are not necessarily discoverers.”

—William Ramsay, 1852–1916, Chemist

I.    STRESS AND PRESSURE

The forces that exist within a fluid at any point may arise from various sources. These include gravity, or the “weight” of the fluid, an imposed static pressure from an external source, an external driving force such as a pump or compressor, and the internal resistance to relative motion between fluid elements, or inertial effects resulting from the local velocity and the mass flow rate of the fluid (e.g., the transport or rate of change ...

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