J.C. Russ, North Carolina State University, USA
Quality control measurement of foods, and determination of structural parameters for correlation to processing variables and product properties, relies on measurements. These are often performed using digital imaging and computer-based image analysis. This chapter reviews stereological procedures based on geometric principles that are capable of efficiently determining meaningful structural values. These include metric properties such as volumes, surface areas, lengths and spatial distributions, as well as topological properties such as number density. Characterization of surface roughness is also described.