Conclusions and Future Directions
Technological advancement has been one of the key factors driving the growth of society, the economy, and human life. On the other hand, society and the economy are too dependent on technology. The current globalized society and economy has been changing rapidly and unpredictably. For this reason, consistent technological advancement cannot be managed using the conventional R&D approaches. However, the recently identified value of sustainability of human life, society, economy, business, and the environment is gradually being regarded as essential. With respect to this value, the R&D approaches are being reviewed, and the concept-oriented R&D approach is being considered in terms of concept creation, technology creation, and market cultivation in real-world conditions. One example of concept-oriented R&D is the autonomous decentralized system (ADS) concept and its technologies, which have been shown to be effective in real-world conditions. This R&D approach has been accepted and implemented throughout the world. This ADS concept-oriented approach has sustained continued use for 35 years.
In Part I, the R&D approaches have proved to be effective under the four factors of needs, subject, situation, and evaluation. R&D has to specify the needs of the majority, minority, or community users; the subject of component, system, or system of systems; a situation that is stable, changing, or unpredictable; ...