Chapter 8

Assessing the Prototypes

I cannot help fearing that men may reach a point where they look on every new theory as a danger, every innovation as a toilsome trouble, every social advance as a first step toward revolution, and that they may absolutely refuse to move at all.

—ALEXIS DE TOCQUEVILLE

In 2001, when Apple launched the iPod, the reviews were mixed. Said one tech analyst, “Clearly Apple is following Sony’s lead by integrating consumer electronics devices into its marketing strategy, but Apple lacks the richness of Sony’s product offering. And introducing new consumer products right now is risky, especially if they cannot be priced attractively.”1

In 2007 similar grumblings greeted the iPhone. Said one Engadget commenter, “Apparently ...

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