Chapter 17

Shifting Demand

From the Economic Imperative of Energy Efficiency to Business Models that Engage and Empower Consumers

John A. “Skip” Laitner1, Matthew T. McDonnell1 and Heidi M. Keller2, 1Economic and Human Dimensions Research Associates, 2Johns Hopkins University

1 Introduction

In 1950, the United States was an emerging economic powerhouse with a population of 152 million people – just one-half of the people who reside here today. The size of the economy, as measured by its Gross Domestic Product (GDP), was just 15 percent the size of today’s number one market in the world; and, in 1950, the U.S. used about 35 quadrillion Btus of purchased energy, including electricity, coal, natural gas, oil, and wood. If the many different forms ...

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