M. J. Kelly
Department of Engineering, Centre for Advanced Photonics and Electronics, University of Cambridge, 9 JJ Thomson Avenue, CB3 0FA, Cambridge, United Kingdom; MacDiarmid Institute for Advanced Materials and Nanotechnology, Victoria University of Wellington, Wellington, 6140, New Zealand
Artefacts in widespread use in electronic and optoelectronic systems have been manufactured by low-cost, high-volume processes. To get to that stage, the understanding and design of the artefact and the choice of materials are such that several key attributes apply1:
While we recognize these features, for example, in products for mainstream applications, we also note their absence in many, but not all, nanoscale artefacts made with comparable fabrication technologies such as deposition, etching, and lithography.
In practice, one can apply also this argument to complex molecules as nanoscale artefacts. If one translates six-sigma quality into four or five-nines purity, only a few relatively simple ...