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Guru's Guide to SQL Server Architecture and Internals, The by Ken Henderson

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The ACID Test

SQL Server transactions are often described as “having the ACID properties” or “passing the ACID test,” where ACID is an acronym for atomic, consistent, isolated, and durable. Transactional adherence to the ACID tenets is commonplace in modern DBMSs and is a prerequisite for ensuring the safety and reliability of data.

Atomicity

A transaction is atomic if it's an all-or-nothing proposition. When the transaction succeeds, all of its changes are stored permanently; when it fails, they're completely reversed. So, for example, if a transaction includes ten DELETE commands and the last one fails, rolling back the transaction will reverse the previous nine. Likewise, if a single command attempts ten row deletions and one of them fails, ...

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