One of my preferred ways of learning is through experimentation. In order to explain the Docker architecture, we are going to show an example, but first, we need to install Docker itself. In this case, I am working with Mac, but at https://docs.docker.com/engine/installation/, you can find the distribution that suits your needs with a very clear set of instructions (usually a package that needs to be installed).
Once you have installed Docker, run the following command:
docker run hello-world
Once it finishes, the output should be very similar to the following one:
Unable to find image 'hello-world:latest' locallylatest: Pulling from library/hello-world78445dd45222: Pull completeDigest: sha256:c5515758d4c5e1e838e9cd307f6c6a0d620b5e07e6f927b07d05f6d12a1ac8d7 ...