Security

Up to this point, we haven’t discussed security. You’ve put a lot of sensitive information into your directory, which is now controlling whether users can log into machines on your network. And you could certainly put a lot more information into the directory: telephone numbers, human resources information, etc. Some of this information might be genuinely useful to the public at large; some of it may be highly confidential. But you don’t yet know how to keep users from accessing information they shouldn’t have access to. In order to have any confidence in a solution, we must examine how certain security issues are addressed by both the PAM and NSS modules.

First, it is important to understand what level of security is desired and exactly what information is being protected. Are you concerned only with protecting passwords? What about usernames as well? From the perspective of system administration, the most important information to protect is related to user and group accounts. Few sysadmins worry about someone being able to snoop a hosts file as it is copied across the network from one machine to another. However, everyone should be concerned about using a clear-text protocol, such as FTP, to transfer /etc/passwd and /etc/shadow from one machine to another.

To protect user passwords, we must look at how the PAM module binds to the directory. pam_ldap always uses a simple bind to authenticate a user against an LDAP server. You should avoid sending account credentials across ...

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