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Machine Learning with Spark - Second Edition by Nick Pentreath, Manpreet Singh Ghotra, Rajdeep Dua

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Differential calculus

At the core of calculus lie derivatives, where the derivative is defined as the instantaneous rate of change of a given function with respect to one of its variables. The study of finding a derivative is known as differentiation. Geometrically, the derivative at a known point is given by the slope of a tangent line to the graph of the function, provided that the derivative exists, and is defined at that point.

Differentiation is the reverse of Integration. Differentiation has several applications; like in physics, the derivative of displacement is velocity, and the derivative of velocity is acceleration. Derivatives are mainly used to find maxima or minima of a function.

Within machine learning, we deal with the functions ...

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