Earlier in the chapter, we noted how it is the responsibility of individual applications to manage their own users. This user management is a small part of the larger problem of database application security. As an application architect, you are responsible for designing your application to protect its data and ensure that a compromise against it cannot impact other applications.
How you approach application security is heavily dependent on the architecture of your application. Chapter 8 goes into the details of database application architecture. For the purposes of this chapter, however, we will talk about two common components under many architectures: application servers and clients.