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Multivalency by Bart Jan Ravoo, Rainer Haag, Leonard J. Prins, Jurriaan Huskens

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7Multivalency as a Design Criterion in Catalyst Development

Paolo Scrimin, Maria A. Cardona, Carlos M. León Prieto, and Leonard J. Prins

Department of Chemical Sciences, University of Padova, Via Marzolo 1, 35131, Padova, Italy

7.1 Introduction

Multivalency is most often associated with the binding interaction between molecular partners through the simultaneous occurrence of multiple binding events. The aim of this chapter is to illustrate how multivalency relates to catalysis, in particular referring to those cases in which multivalency is purposely used as a design criterion to develop catalysts. The attachment of homogenous catalysts to multivalent scaffolds such as dendrimers, nanoparticles, or macroscopic resins has received tremendous attention in the past decades [1–5]. This interest is predominantly caused by the possibility to create hybrid systems that combine the advantages of heterogeneous and homogeneous catalysts [6]. Anchoring of a catalyst on a solid support creates the possibility of catalyst separation and, thus, recycling, which leads to a potential cost reduction. Although of obvious importance, multivalent catalysts that have been prepared for this purpose will not be discussed here and the reader is referred to the numerous reviews cited above that provide overviews of such systems. Rather, in this chapter the focus will be on systems in which multivalency is an essential prerequisite for observing or enhancing catalytic activity. This will involve a discussion ...

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