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Network Infrastructure and Architecture: Designing High-Availability Networks by Carl McCrosky, Daniel Minoli, Krzysztof Iniewski

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1

INTRODUCTION TO NETWORKING

1.1 Introduction

1.2 Transmission Media

1.2.1 Copper Wire

1.2.2 Coaxial Cable

1.2.3 Optical Fiber

1.2.4 Wireless Communication

1.3 Basic Networking Concepts

1.3.1 LAN, SAN, MAN, and WAN

1.3.2 Network Topologies

1.3.3 Circuit vs. Packet Switching

1.3.4 Wavelength vs. Time vs. Statistical Multiplexing

1.4 Open System Interconnection Model

1.4.1 Basic Concept

1.4.2 OSI Model and Data Encapsulation

1.4.3 Network Overlay Hierarchy

1.5 Networking Equipment

1.5.1 Regenerators, Modems, Hubs, and Add–Drop Multiplexers

1.5.2 Switches

1.5.3 Routers

1.5.4 Networking Service Models

Key Points

References

1.1 INTRODUCTION

We all use the Internet. However, few of us are aware of exactly what is happening once we click a mouse after typing a key word in a search engine. How is our question traveling to Google computers? What type of hardware is involved in this process? How are bits and bytes moved from point A to point B? How do they know which way to go? Who takes care of the process of data delivery?

In this chapter we provide a gentle start on our journey of discovering how data networks, which are responsible for the delivery of information across the Internet, work in today's world. The text serves as an introduction to broadband networking and deals with basic concepts in communications. We start by discussing the various transmission media used and show that optical fiber is a much better medium than copper wire or coaxial cable. This is followed by a description ...

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