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Open Government by Laurel Ruma, Daniel Lathrop

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Index

A note on the digital index

A link in an index entry is displayed as the section title in which that entry appears. Because some sections have multiple index markers, it is not unusual for an entry to have several links to the same section. Clicking on any link will take you directly to the place in the text in which the marker appears.

A

accountability
citizens replacing journalists in holding government accountable, Crowdsourcing in Action
legislative information and, Screen Scraping Congress
privacy protection and government data, Accountability
transparency and, The Dark Side of Open Government
ad hoc groups, Conclusion
adhocracy, Pockets of Excellence: The Goverati
advisory committees, A Robustness Principle for Government
advocacy
BAHs (basic advocacy headlines) for communications, Clearly identify your emails
making your voice heard, Be knowledgeable
Allen, George, Crowdsourcing in Action
Allison, Bill, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Amazon
crowdsourcing technology, A Robustness Principle for Government
factors in success, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
service-oriented architecture, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
American Recovery and Reinvestment Act, My Data Can’t Tell You That, Good Data Doesn’t Mean Good Results, Putting It All Together: Disclosure of Federal Spending
anonymity for privacy protection, Anonymous Access
antipatterns, Engineering Good Government
blob antipattern, Order from Chaos: The Standards Reference Model, Continued Maintenance: The Blob and ConfederacyThe blob and government
stovepipe antipattern, The First Constitution
antitrust enforcement, innovation and, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
APIs (application programming interfaces), Gov→Media→People
APIs for government data, Government As a Platform, Why Bother with Bulk?
participation enabled by, A Robustness Principle for Government
portal for, Data.gov, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
Apple
factors in success, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
iPhone (see iPhone)
application programming interfaces (APIs), Gov→Media→People
Apps for America, Creating a Developer Corps
Apps for Democracy competition, Competition Is Critical to Any Ecosystem
Apps.DC.gov, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
Arkansas
campaign finance disclosure, State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
selling of legislative information, Constitutional Guidance: Avoid Secrecy Via Access
Armstrong, Charles, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Articles of Confederation, The Articles of Confederation and the Stovepipe Antipattern
as stovepipe antipattern, The Stovepipe Antipattern
Ashcroft, John, Changing Policies, Exemptions, Denials, and Delays
“Ask the President” project (see Personal Democracy Forum)
asymmetric organization, Conclusion
audit logs, immutable, Accountability
automated content, Providing for Reuse and Innovation

B

backups of government data, controlling for privacy, Controlled Backups
BAHs (basic advocacy headlines), Clearly identify your emails
The Bakersfield Californian, Gov→Media→People
Bass, Gary D., How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors
bazaar or marketplace, government as, Government As a Platform
Bender, Edwin, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Berners-Lee, Tim, Lesson 3: Design for Participation, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
Biden, Joe, Good Data Doesn’t Mean Good Results
blob antipattern, Order from Chaos: The Standards Reference Model, Continued Maintenance: The Blob and ConfederacyThe blob and government
government and, The blob and government
blogging
blogs for Utah state government bloggers, Champions Discovered in All Branches of State Government
inside and outside of government, Reversing the Obscurity of Public Servants
Porkbusters coalition of bloggers, This Is the Mashable Now
Utah bloggers in Utah openness debate, Champions Discovered in All Branches of State Government
Boehner, John, Gathering Effective Tools
Brandeis, Louis, Lesson 6: Lower the Barriers to Experimentation
BRIDGE platform, U.S. Intelligence Community, Competition Is Critical to Any Ecosystem, GovLoop and BRIDGE: Networks for Government Employees
Brito, Jerry, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
bubble charts, Policy
bulk government data versus APIs, Why Bother with Bulk?
Bureau of Labor Statistics, job losses in April 2009, My Data Can’t Tell You That
bureaucracies, culture of, The Culture of Bureaucracies and Homeland Security
Burton, Matthew, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Bush administration
FOIA policy, Changing Policies
politically based firings of U.S. attorneys, Crowdsourcing in Action

C

C-SPAN, opening up of archives, This Is the Mashable Now
California
access to voting records of legislators, Barriers to Transparency
campaign finance disclosure, State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
influence of moneyed interests in state politics, Case Study: MAPLight.org
campaign finance
access to political donor data, Case Study: FollowTheMoney.orgConclusion
disrupting rule of money in Washington, D.C., Disrupting Washington’s Golden RuleWhat Comes Next
information available online, This Is the Mashable Now
money–politics connection, corrupting influence, Why We Founded MAPLight.org
Carrotmob project, New Technologies and Civic Life
The Cathedral & the Bazaar, Government As a Platform, The Next Civil Service Culture: The Gift Economy
cell phone market, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT), Demanding Government Data: Public Money Versus Private Research
Center for Responsive Politics (CRP), The National Institute on Money in State Politics’ Role in the Fight for Greater Transparency, Going 2.0: Why OpenSecrets.org Opted for Full Frontal Data SharingConclusion
(see also OpenSecrets.org)
campaign fundraising and lobbying data, This Is the Mashable Now
difficulties of being open, It’s Not Easy Being Open
future developments, The Future Is Now
new model for transparency, Creating a New Model for Transparency
opening up of political finance and lobbying data, Going 2.0: Why OpenSecrets.org Opted for Full Frontal Data Sharing
CFR (Code of Federal Regulations), Changing Policy from the Outside
Change Congress, Patch Culture, Conclusion
Change.gov website, Change.gov Shows How to Change the Gov
choice architecture, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
Christensen, Clayton, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
cities, release of government raw data, Patch Culture
citizen self-organization, A Robustness Principle for Government
citizen self-service, A Robustness Principle for Government
example in Hawaii, A Robustness Principle for Government
citizenship, advanced, Advanced Citizenship
citizens’ view of open government, Citizens’ View of Open GovernmentConclusion
findable government data, working toward, Toward a Findable Government
Internet and findability of government data, The Internet Has Made Us Lazy
Obama as first “we president”, The First “We President”
city services, APIs for, A Robustness Principle for Government
civic intelligence, Online Deliberation and Civic Intelligence
definitions and assertions about, Definitions and Assertions
democracy, deliberation, and the Internet, Democracy, Deliberation, and the InternetE-Liberate is created
findings and issues for deliberative systems, Findings and Issues
potential for online deliberation, Conclusion
civic organizations, transparency movement, Transparency’s Moment?
civic participation, enabling innovation for, Enabling Innovation for Civic EngagementConclusion
citizen initiatives leading the way, Citizen Initiatives Lead the Way
data APIs versus bulk data, Why Bother with Bulk?
data authentication for third-party interfaces, Data Authenticity Down the Line
providing for reuse and innovation, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
civil service, future of, After the Collapse: Open Government and the Future of Civil ServiceConclusion
Coasean collapse, The Coasean Collapse
end of objectivity, The End of Objectivity
extending government networks to citizen participation, Extend the Network
long tail of public policy, The Long Tail of Public Policy
next culture, the gift economy, The Next Civil Service Culture: The Gift Economy
patch culture, Patch Culture
preconditions to government as platform, Two Preconditions to Government As Platform: Capacity for Self-Organization and Collaboration
Clinton, Bill, From Policy to Politicians, Crowdsourcing in Action
cloud computing
encouragement of open standards and interoperability, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
introduction of EC2 platform by Amazon, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
privacy issues for government data, Controlled Backups
CNN visualizations, Visual Literacy
Coalition of Journalists for Open Government, Freedom of Information Acts: Promises and Realities
Coase, Ronald, The Coasean Collapse
Coasean collapse, The Coasean Collapse
Code of Federal Regulations (CFR), Changing Policy from the Outside
collaboration
between intelligence analysts and outsiders on national security, GovLoop and BRIDGE: Networks for Government Employees
precondition to government as platform, Two Preconditions to Government As Platform: Capacity for Self-Organization and Collaboration
collaborative filtering, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
collaborative technologies, solving collective problems, Government As a Platform
committee data on Congressional bills, Committees
Common Cause organization, The Future Is Now
communication from government to citizens, By the People
community collaborative tools, E-Liberate is created
comparison tag cloud, From Policy to Politicians
competition, importance of, Competition Is Critical to Any Ecosystem
complexity creating opacity, Complexity Creates Opacity
computer networking, OSI model, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
computer-assisted reporting, Gov→Media→People
Congress
access to hearings, By the People
campaign finance disclosures, Barriers to Transparency
citizens’ access to legislative process, Many Voices, Many Messages, One Government
communications with constituents, Improving Communication without Being Crushed by Email
entrepreneurial insurgency and use of social media by Republicans, Entrepreneurial Insurgency: Republicans Connect With the American PeopleConclusion
information on members’ voting and work, Patch Culture
personal financial disclosure of members, Good Data Doesn’t Mean Good Results
Senate campaign finance disclosure, State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
Congress Votes database, Accessing Government Data: Open Distribution Versus Jealous Control
Congressional Research Service (CRS) reports, efforts to make public, Demanding Government Data: Public Money Versus Private Research
Connecticut, campaign finance disclosure, State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
Consortium for Open Source Software in the Public Administration (COSPA), Seek Out Advice or Search for Information on Similar Transitions
Constitution
directives on avoidance of legislative secrecy, Constitutional Guidance: Avoid Secrecy Via Access
good framework for government, Engineering Good Government
as standards reference model, The Constitution As a Standards Reference Model
constitution for emergent democracy, Building an Emergent Democracy
consultation in government, By the People
contracting for government IT, failures of, A Peace Corps for ProgrammersA Peace Corps for Programmers
contracts and grants (federal), information on, Federal Data: Approximations Galore
corporate and nonprofit records, access to, Sharing Documents with the Public
cosmos versus taxis, Limiting Factors and the Internet
cost to keep and expose government data, Cost
coupling (in software design), The Blob
court records, federal court, RECAP: Freeing PACER Documents for Public Use
courts in Utah, online services, Champions Discovered in All Branches of State Government
Craigslist, A Robustness Principle for Government
mashup using data on Google Maps, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
Credit Cardholders’ Bill of Rights of 2009, industries supporting and opposing, MAPLight.org’s Unique Contribution
Critical Infrastructure Information Act (2002), The Act and Amendments
crowdsourcing, A Robustness Principle for Government, “You Can Be the Eyes and Ears”: Barack Obama and the Wisdom of Crowds
(see also wisdom of crowds, Barack Obama and)
collaborative filtering and crowdsourced analysis of data, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
GovTrack.us user community, Engaging the GovTrack Community
potential use by journalists in new mediasphere, Gov→Media→People
CRS (Congressional Research Service) reports, efforts to make public, Demanding Government Data: Public Money Versus Private Research
Culberson, John, So, Who Gets It?
culture in government
changes needed in spending reporting, Changing the Culture to Emphasize Effectiveness, Performance, and Equity
changing culture of secrecy to transparency, Changing the Culture Within Government
resistance to release of information, The Culture of Bureaucracies and Homeland Security

D

Daffara, Carlo, How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors
Danish Board of Technology (DBT), consensus conferences, Online Civic Deliberation
data
importance in context of current Internet business models, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
inaccessibility of government data to search engines, Toward a Findable Government
open data and open government, Open Data and Open Government
data authentication for third-party sites, Data Authenticity Down the Line
data collection by city governments, Data Collection
data feeds, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
data minimization, Data Minimization
data mining and harnessing of implicit participation, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
data retention and decommissioning by government, Data Retention and Decommissioning
data tethering, Data-Sharing Integrity: Data Tethering
data-driven, service-oriented architecture, Practical Steps for Government Agencies
Data.gov, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth, Open Data and Open Government, Social Media and the Fight for Transparency, Appointing the first federal CIO
platform model for Gov 2.0, Apps.DC.gov versus, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
quest for simple system, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
Data.utah.gov, Making Data More Accessible
databases, A Peace Corps for Programmers
(see also IT)
proprietary and antiquated, holding government data, Proprietary and Medieval Databases
terrorist watch list, failures of, Tipping Point: The Extinction of Pencils
de Cindio, Fiorella, E-Liberate is created
de Tocqueville, Alexis, The Dark Side of Open Government
decline of deference, Patch Culture
default choices in public policy, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
deliberation, Definitions and AssertionsConclusion
conclusions about, Conclusion
context of, Definitions and Assertions
democracy and the Internet, Democracy, Deliberation, and the Internet
issues for developers of deliberative systems, Findings and Issues
online civic deliberation, Democracy, Deliberation, and the Internet, Support for Online Civic Deliberation
deliberative democracy, The Timidity of Deliberative DemocracyThe Timidity of Deliberative Democracy
versus collaborative democracy, Distinguishing Deliberative and Collaborative DemocracyDistinguishing Deliberative and Collaborative Democracy
DeMint, Jim, The TC Effect, Changing Policy from the Outside
democracy
changes wrought by the Internet (see emergent democracy)
civic intelligence and, Definitions and Assertions
definitions of, Democracy As a Scaling Mechanism
deliberation and the Internet, Democracy, Deliberation, and the InternetE-Liberate is created
transparency in government and private sectors, The Missing Diagnosis
Department of Defense (DoD), Complexity Creates Opacity
guidance on use of open source software, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
Department of Justice
PACER database, By the People, RECAP: Freeing PACER Documents for Public Use
website for FOIA oversight, Conclusion
design patterns and antipatterns, Engineering Good Government
developer corps, creating, Creating a Developer Corps
developer ecosystem, competition from platform provider, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
Dierking, Howard, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
digital age, explanation of, The Digital Age Explained
digital signatures for government data, Data Authenticity Down the Line
DIO (Do It Ourselves), A Robustness Principle for Government
DIRECT Launcher project, The Coasean Collapse
disclosure of federal spending, Putting It All Together: Disclosure of Federal SpendingChanging the Culture to Emphasize Effectiveness, Performance, and Equity
culture change emphasizing effectiveness, performance, and equity, Changing the Culture to Emphasize Effectiveness, Performance, and Equity
policy changes for deeper information on recipients, Policy Changes to Get Deeper Information on Recipients
technology making data transparent and useful, Using Technology to Make Recovery Act Data Accessible, Understandable, and Usable
disclosure of government data, paper versus Internet, Disclosing Government Data: Paper Versus the Internet
discrimination in mortgage lending, Targeted Transparency
discussion forums, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
documenting government, By the People
Drapeau, Mark, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author

E

e-Liberate, E-Liberate is created
Eaves, David, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
economic crisis of 2009, “You Can Be the Eyes and Ears”
(see also wisdom of crowds, Barack Obama and)
crowdsourcing, watching of government spending on, “You Can Be the Eyes and Ears”
government efforts to counter, The Dark Side of Open Government
unemployment figures, My Data Can’t Tell You That
EDGAR database, By the People, The Bad Old Days: When Insiders Ruled
SEC forced to make data available over Internet, Liberating Government Data: Carl Malamud Versus the Man
effectiveness of federal spending, Changing the Culture to Emphasize Effectiveness, Performance, and Equity
Elastic Compute Cloud (EC2) platform, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
electronic health record (EHR), The Huge Positive Potential of Digital Technologies
emails to legislators, Improving Communication without Being Crushed by Email
best practices, Clearly identify your emails
emergency services calls, Extend the Network
data collection about, Data Collection
emergent democracy, Emergent DemocracyThe Road to Emergent Democracy
constitution for, Underlying Principles
future trends, The Road to Emergent Democracy
limiting factors and the Internet, Limiting Factors and the Internet
One Click Orgs and virtual corporations, One Click Orgs and Virtual Corporations
scaling mechanism, democracy as, Democracy As a Scaling MechanismIncreasing Scale, Increasing Formalization
enterprise architecture patterns, The Articles of Confederation and the Stovepipe Antipattern
enterprise stovepipe antipattern, The Articles of Confederation and the Stovepipe Antipattern
entrepreneurial insurgency, Entrepreneurial Insurgency: Republicans Connect With the American PeopleConclusion
Congress and, Entrepreneurial Insurgency and Congress
social media and the fight for transparency, Social Media and the Fight for Transparency
Twitter use by Congress members, Congress Tweets, Too
YouTube use by Congress members, I YouTube, You YouTube
equity issues in government spending, Changing the Culture to Emphasize Effectiveness, Performance, and Equity
EU Open Source Observatory, Promote Collaboration and Pooling of Resources
executive stock options, backdating of, Crowdsourcing in Action
experimentation, lowering barriers to, Lesson 6: Lower the Barriers to Experimentation
experts, advisory committees of, A Robustness Principle for Government

F

Facebook
applications based on GovTrack.us data, Engaging the GovTrack Community
government use of, Two Preconditions to Government As Platform: Capacity for Self-Organization and Collaboration
open development platform, Competition Is Critical to Any Ecosystem
failure, experimentation and, Lesson 6: Lower the Barriers to Experimentation
Fair Copyright in Research Works Act, Committees
Fair Credit Reporting Act, Transparent Transparency
FBI Uniform Crime Reports, Federal Data: Approximations Galore
Federal Advisory Committee Act (FACA), A Robustness Principle for Government
Federal Chief Information Officer (see Kundra, Vivek)
federal courts online database, RECAP: Freeing PACER Documents for Public Use
Federal Election Commission (FEC), example of filing, It’s Not Easy Being Open
federal government, size and complexity creating opacity, Complexity Creates Opacity
federal judiciary, PACER database, By the People
federal stimulus bill, visualization, Policy
FederalReporting.gov, Policy Changes to Get Deeper Information on Recipients
FedSpending.org, This Is the Mashable Now, Federal Data: Approximations Galore
feedback from users, Competition Is Critical to Any Ecosystem
Felten, Edward W., How This Book Is Organized, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve, About the Authors
Filibusted.us website, Congressional Mashups
filtering, collaborative, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
financial sector regulation, transparency efforts, A Matter of Politics
findable government data, working toward, Toward a Findable Government
Fioretti, Marco, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
FixMyStreet project, A Robustness Principle for Government, Gov→Media→People
Fletcher, David, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Flickr online photo sharing, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
FLOSS (free/libre/open source software), Open Source Software for Open Government Agencies, Free and Open Standards and Software: The Digital Basis of Open Government
advantages for government and public agencies, Advantages of FLOSS for Government and Public AgenciesStaff Empowerment
making it easy to experiment and learn, Make It Easy to Experiment and Learn
management best practices, Best Practices: ManagementPromote Collaboration and Pooling of Resources
social best practices in migration, Best Practices: SocialUse the Migration As an Opportunity to Improve Users’ Skills
technical best practices, Best Practices: TechnicalCompile and Update a Detailed Migration Workbook
FOIA (see Freedom of Information Act)
FollowTheMoney.org, The National Institute on Money in State Politics’ Role in the Fight for Greater TransparencyThe National Institute on Money in State Politics’ Role in the Fight for Greater Transparency
form letters to legislators, Improving Communication without Being Crushed by Email, Forego the use of form letters
Founders’ wave of change, By the People, By the People
Freedom of Information Act (FOIA), Sharing Documents with the Public, Freedom of Information Acts: Promises and RealitiesConclusion
the act and amendments, The Act and Amendments
administrations’ policy on, Changing Policies
delays in fulfilling requests, Exemptions, Denials, and Delays
denials of requests, Exemptions, Denials, and Delays
exemptions to the act, Exemptions, Denials, and Delays
flaws and limitations, Changing Policies
needed changes, Research and Prepare
open to citizens from all countries, Open to All
recommended changes for, Changing Policies
research and preparation for filing requests, Research and Prepare
sources of FOIA requests, Freedom of Information Acts: Promises and Realities
successful strategies for requests, FOIA Strategies That Work
websites for monitoring FOIA use and changes, Conclusion
Fung, Archon, How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors

G

GAO (Government Accountability Office) website, Research and Prepare
GDP, government spending as percent of, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
generativity, platforms and, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
geography and government, What Is Government?
gift economy, The Next Civil Service Culture: The Gift Economy
Gillmor, Dan, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Gingrich, Newt, Opening Legislative Data
Global Positioning System (GPS), By the People
global, distributed press conference, Crowdsourcing in Action
god class (see blob antipattern)
golden rule of Washington (see money, influence on government)
Gonzalez, Albert, From Policy to Politicians
Gonzalez-Barahona, Jesus M., How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors
Google
AdWords, data-driven feedback loops, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
extraction of value from implicit participation, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
Google Maps, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
Gov 2.0 movement, Preface
Gov 2.0 Summit, Reversing the Obscurity of Public Servants
Goverati, Pockets of Excellence: The Goverati
Government 2.0 Camp, Reversing the Obscurity of Public Servants
Government 2.0, defining, Government As a PlatformPractical Steps for Government Agencies
build simple system and allow it to evolve, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
data and value derived from it, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
data mining allowing harnessing of implicit participation, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
design for participation, Lesson 3: Design for ParticipationLesson 3: Design for Participation
government as platform, Government As a Platform
leading by example, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
learning from hackers, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
lowering barriers to experimentation, Lesson 6: Lower the Barriers to Experimentation
open standards sparking innovation and growth, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
practical steps for agencies, Practical Steps for Government Agencies
robustness principle for government, A Robustness Principle for Government
Government Accountability Office (GAO) website, Research and Prepare
government data
disclosing, paper versus Internet, Disclosing Government Data: Paper Versus the Internet
inaccuracies and omissions in, My Data Can’t Tell You ThatConclusion
“Government Data and the Invisible Hand”, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve, Practical Steps for Government Agencies
government employees, use of social networking media, GovLoop and BRIDGE: Networks for Government EmployeesConclusion
government information flow, Gov→Media→PeopleConclusion
government social ambassadors, Harnessing Social Capital
government spending
citizens’ involvement in watching, This Is the Mashable Now
disclosure of federal spending, Putting It All Together: Disclosure of Federal SpendingChanging the Culture to Emphasize Effectiveness, Performance, and Equity
as percent of GDP, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
ShovelWatch project tracking stimulus package spending, Crowdsourcing in Action
government, definition of, What Is Government?
GovLoop, GovLoop and BRIDGE: Networks for Government Employees
GovTrack.us, Citizen Initiatives Lead the Way
GovTrack.us case study, Case Study: GovTrack.usConclusion
change in goals of website, Screen Scraping Congress
changing government policy on sharing information, Changing Policy from the Outside
engaging user community, Engaging the GovTrack Community
newer technology applied to legislative information, Opening Legislative Data
screen scraping government websites, Screen Scraping Congress
websites reusing GovTrack data in mashups, Congressional Mashups
Gray, Jim, search for, Conclusion
group size, neocortex size as constraint on, Informal Self-Government

H

hack, definition of, All Your Data Are Belong to Us: Liberating Government Data
Halliburton, government contracts, Federal Data: Approximations Galore
Hamilton, Alexander, Engineering Good Government, The Constitution As a Standards Reference Model, The Blob
Harper, Jim, How This Book Is Organized, New Technologies and Civic Life, About the Authors
hashing techniques, Minimal Disclosure
Hawaii, citizen self-service example, A Robustness Principle for Government
health care
alignment of costs and outcomes, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
current efforts at reform, technology lessons and, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
electronic health record (EHR), The Huge Positive Potential of Digital Technologies
problems with digital technologies, Why Open Digital Standards Matter in Government, Standards and the Problems with Digital Technology
provision of, government versus private sector, Government As a Platform
Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (1996), The Act and Amendments
hierarchical organizations, value of, The Coasean Collapse
Holder, Eric, Changing Policies
Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA), Targeted Transparency
homeland security and release of government information, The Culture of Bureaucracies and Homeland Security
Hoppin, Andrew, Revealing Obscured Government Data
HousingMaps.com, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
Houston, Brant, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
HTML and HTTP in WWW architecture of participation, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
Huffington Post
Bill Clinton interview, Crowdsourcing in Action
FundRace, New Technologies and Civic Life, This Is the Mashable Now

I

Illinois, Open Book mashup of state contracts and political donors, Bolstering the Spirit of Public Disclosure Laws
immutable audit logs, Accountability
impedance mismatches, Design the Workflow Support Infrastructure to Reduce “Impedance Mismatches”
inaccuracies in government data, My Data Can’t Tell You ThatConclusion
information flow about government activities (see government information flow)
information sharing about individuals by government agencies, Ethically Questionable Information (Sharing)
innovation
arising from open standards, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
bottom-up change through young technologists, Bottom-Up Change Through Young Technologists
enabling for civic engagement, Enabling Innovation for Civic EngagementConclusion
policy defaults’ impact on, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
insiders (moneyed), influence on government, Disrupting Washington’s Golden Rule
rule of insiders, The Bad Old Days: When Insiders Ruled
institutional inertia blocking transparency, Transparency, Meet Institutional Inertia
Intel, duopoly with Microsoft, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
Intelligence Community platform (BRIDGE), Competition Is Critical to Any Ecosystem, GovLoop and BRIDGE: Networks for Government Employees
Internet
democracy, deliberation and, Democracy, Deliberation, and the InternetE-Liberate is created
design for participation, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
disclosure of government data on, Disclosing Government Data: Paper Versus the Internet
effectiveness of government transparency goals and, The Internet Has Made Us Lazy
elimination of limiting factors on democracy, Limiting Factors and the Internet
government data access and, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
as information superhighway, Government As a Platform
Web 2.0 and importance of data, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
Internet wave of change, By the People
interoperability and portability, encouragement through open standards, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
Investigative Reporters and Editors, The Act and Amendments
iPhone
developer platform, Government As a Platform, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
equivalent needed in health care system, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
introduction of, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
Routesy app, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
StationStops app, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
IT
antiquated media storing government data, Ancient Media
bottom-up change in government IT through young technologists, Bottom-Up Change Through Young Technologists
downsizing or eliminating federal organizations’ development teams, Downsize or Eliminate Organizational IT Development Teams
federal government, need to develop own software, A Peace Corps for ProgrammersConclusion
fragmented IT and one-off apps in DoD, Kaleidoscope IT: One-Off Apps Obscure Information
government IT market, focus on proposals, not products, A Market Focused on Proposals, Not Products
government market, pre-Internet mentality, Framing the Window
products, not projects for government IT, IT Products, Not Projects
proprietary and antiquated databases storing government data, Proprietary and Medieval Databases
setting tone at top for government IT, Set the Tone at the Top
transparency for government IT projects, IT Transparency
transparency in government, Transparency, Meet Institutional Inertia
user analytics for government IT products, User Analytics
using 21st-century technology to enable government data transparency, Deploying Twenty-First-Century Technology
IT Dashboard (IT.usaspending.gov), Open Data and Open Government, Appointing the first federal CIO

J

Jonas, Jeff, How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors
journalism
failure to ask hard questions, Crowdsourcing in Action
possibilities in new mediasphere, Gov→Media→PeopleConclusion
reporting on government activities, Gov→Media→People
self-appointed role as intermediaries between government and citizens, Gov→Media→People
journalism organizations, The Act and Amendments

L

lack of political will for transparency, State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
law of conservation of attractive profits, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
Lee, Tim, RECAP: Freeing PACER Documents for Public Use
legal materials, access to, By the People
legal restrictions on releasing government data, Privacy and Legal Restrictions
Legislative Committee Analysis Tool, The National Institute on Money in State Politics’ Role in the Fight for Greater Transparency
legislative process, citizens’ access to, Democracy, Under EverythingConclusion
charges by governments for legislative information, Constitutional Guidance: Avoid Secrecy Via Access
Constitutional directives on avoiding secrecy, Constitutional Guidance: Avoid Secrecy Via Access
inadequacy of current tools, Meeting Modern-Day Needs
recommendations for improvement, How to Improve Civic EngagementUse open source tools
social media and journalism, Revealing Obscured Government Data
Utah state government, Champions Discovered in All Branches of State Government
Legislative Research Service (LRS), Revealing Obscured Government Data
LegiStorm website, Disclosing Government Data: Paper Versus the Internet
Leonhardt, David, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
Lessig, Lawrence, Patch Culture, Committees, Policy
lethally generous, Reversing the Obscurity of Public Servants
liberating government data, All Your Data Are Belong to Us: Liberating Government DataConclusion
freeing PACER documents for public use, RECAP: Freeing PACER Documents for Public Use
open distribution versus jealous control, Accessing Government Data: Open Distribution Versus Jealous Control
paper copies versus online data, Disclosing Government Data: Paper Versus the Internet
public money versus private research, Demanding Government Data: Public Money Versus Private Research
Library of Congress, THOMAS system, Citizen Initiatives Lead the Way, Opening Legislative DataChanging Policy from the Outside
limiting factors for democracy, Limiting Factors and the Internet
Lincoln wave of change, By the People
links to web pages, WWW design and, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
Linux, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
LittleSis project, The Future Is Now
Lobbyist Link mashup, The National Institute on Money in State Politics’ Role in the Fight for Greater Transparency
lobbyists
inaccurate reporting of campaign contributions, Federal Data: Approximations Galore
in Washington, D.C., Disrupting Washington’s Golden Rule
we are all lobbyists now, Starting the Movement: We Are All Lobbyists Now
long tail, The Long Tail of Public Policy
governments tapping into, Extend the Network
Los Angeles County, transparency efforts, Targeted Transparency
LRS (Legislative Research Service), Revealing Obscured Government Data

M

machine-readable formats for data disclosure, State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
Madison, James, The blob and government, Disrupting Washington’s Golden Rule
Malamud, Carl, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author, The Bad Old Days: When Insiders Ruled, Changing Policy from the Outside, Sharing Documents with the Public
liberating government data, Liberating Government Data: Carl Malamud Versus the Man
Many Eyes visualizations, Policy
Sarah Palin’s acceptance speech, From Policy to Politicians
MAPLight.org, New Technologies and Civic Life, Providing for Reuse and Innovation, Case Study: MAPLight.orgConclusion
campaign finance data mashups with Congressional votes, This Is the Mashable Now
committee data on bills, Committees
database illuminating money–politics connection, Why We Founded MAPLight.org
mashups using GovTrack’s legislative database, Congressional Mashups
other tools, Other Tools
reasons for founding, Why We Founded MAPLight.org
timeline feature for campaign contributions, Timeline
unique contribution of, MAPLight.org’s Unique Contribution
vote data for legislators, How Each Legislator Voted
votes on bills and campaign donations, Votes
maps
mapping mashups, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
MapQuest and Google Maps, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
mashups of government data, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
Maricopa County (Arizona) sheriff’s office, Federal Data: Approximations Galore
marketplace or bazaar, government as, Government As a Platform
Marshall, Joshua Micah, Crowdsourcing in Action
mashups, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
encouraging with government data, Encouraging data mashups
government data from different agencies, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
potential for government data, This Is the Mashable Now
using GovTrack’s legislative database, Congressional Mashups
McCain, John, From Policy to Politicians
McCaskill, Claire, So, Who Gets It?
McCroskey, Chris, How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors
Mechanical Turk projects, A Robustness Principle for Government
Medicare, dynamic pricing system for, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
meetings (law-making process), access to, By the People
meetups, civic-minded and self-organized, A Robustness Principle for Government
Melber, Ari, Crowdsourcing in Action, Crowdsourcing in Action
Microsoft
development and control of PC market, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
duopoly with Intel, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
factors in success, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
introduction of Windows platform and applications, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
Milan Community Network, E-Liberate is created
Miller, Ellen S., How This Book Is Organized, Online Town Hall or “Participation Theater”?, About the Author, It’s Not Easy Being Open
minimal data disclosure to protect privacy, Minimal Disclosure
money, influence on government, Disrupting Washington’s Golden RuleWhat Comes Next
campaign contributions correlated with legislation, Conclusion
campaign finance and political donors, Why We Founded MAPLight.org
future developments in transparency, What Comes Next
government information on the Internet, This Is the Mashable Now
poll of American public on, The Dark Side of Open Government
rule of insiders, The Bad Old Days: When Insiders Ruled
mortgages, Home Mortgage Disclosure Act (HMDA), Targeted Transparency
Moulton, Sean, How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors
Moynihan, Daniel Patrick, Changing the Culture Within Government
multimedia portal (Utah.gov), Utah’s Multimedia Portal Leverages Web 2.0 Services
mySociety organization, A Robustness Principle for Government, Gov→Media→People

N

NASA, DIRECT Launcher project, The Coasean Collapse
The Nation magazine, Crowdsourcing in Action, Crowdsourcing in Action
National Freedom of Information Coalition, Open to All
National Institute on Money in State Politics, The National Institute on Money in State Politics’ Role in the Fight for Greater Transparency, Case Study: MAPLight.org
recommendations for open data, In an Ideal World: Recommendations for Open Data
National Security Archive, information on FOIA requests, Sharing Documents with the Public, Open to All
Netherland, Wynn, How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors
New York Metropolitan Transit Authority, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
New York State legislature, selling of legislative information, Revealing Obscured Government Data
The New York Times, visualizations, Visual Literacy
Newman, Daniel, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
news media, reporting on government activities, Gov→Media→PeopleConclusion
news sources for legislative process, Revealing Obscured Government Data
Newsom, Gavin, Practical Steps for Government Agencies
911 (emergency services) calls, Extend the Network
Noveck, Beth Simone, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author, Open Data and Open Government, Social Media and the Fight for Transparency
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC), data on nuclear waste, The How and Why of Data Collection
nuclear waste from power plants, The How and Why of Data Collection

O

Obama administration
commitment to open government, Open Government and Open Society
FOIA policy, Changing Policies
Open Government Initiative, Social Media and the Fight for Transparency
stimulus spending, transparency of, My Data Can’t Tell You That
transparency, promises versus actual, Government Transparency: Three Hurdles
Obama, Barack, Preface, By the People, Change.gov Shows How to Change the Gov
(see also wisdom of crowds, Barack Obama and)
first “we president”, The First “We President”
statement on open government and transparency, “You Can Be the Eyes and Ears”: Barack Obama and the Wisdom of Crowds
Transparency and Open Government memo, Memo from President Obama on Transparency and Open Government
object orientation, The Blob
objectivity, end of, The End of Objectivity
obscurity of public servants, reversing, Reversing the Obscurity of Public Servants
obsolescent media and unreadable software formats, Standards and the Problems with Digital Technology
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
Office of Management and Budget (OMB), Open Data and Open Government
Office of Science and Technology Policy (OSTP), Open Data and Open Government
Office of the Secretary of Defense (OSD), Transparency Inside Out
OMB Watch, Federal Data: Approximations Galore
One Click Orgs, One Click Orgs and Virtual Corporations
one-way hash, Minimal Disclosure
online civic deliberation, Democracy, Deliberation, and the Internet, Online Civic Deliberation
support for, Online Civic Deliberation
online town hall, Online Town Hall or “Participation Theater”?
open data
Center for Responsive Politics (CRP), Going 2.0: Why OpenSecrets.org Opted for Full Frontal Data SharingConclusion
recommendations for disclosure, In an Ideal World: Recommendations for Open Data
open digital standards
innovation and growth arising from, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
open digital standards in open government, Why Open Digital Standards Matter in GovernmentConclusion
badly used technology hindering progress, Badly Used Technology Hinders Progress
digital basis of open government, Free and Open Standards and Software: The Digital Basis of Open Government
explanation of digital age, The Digital Age Explained
positive potential of digital technologies, The Huge Positive Potential of Digital Technologies
reasons digital has gone bad, Why Has Digital Gone Bad So Often?
standards and problems with digital technology, Standards and the Problems with Digital Technology
Open for Questions area of White House website, Crowdsourcing in Action
open government
dark side of, The Dark Side of Open Government
defined, Preface
improving democracy, civic intelligence, and containing costs, Definitions and Assertions
Obama administration position on, Open Government and Open Society
open government data, barriers to, Toads on the Road to Open Government DataConclusion
antiquated media for government data, Ancient Media
cost, Cost
culture of bureaucracies and homeland security, The Culture of Bureaucracies and Homeland Security
data collection by governments, Data Collection
definition of government, What Is Government?
ethically questionable information (privacy), Ethically Questionable Information (Privacy)
privacy and legal restrictions, Privacy and Legal Restrictions
proprietary and antiquated databases, Proprietary and Medieval Databases
reasons why government data is not released, Exposing the Soul of Government
sharing of ethically questionable information, Ethically Questionable Information (Sharing)
open government directives, Practical Steps for Government Agencies
Open Government Initiative, Social Media and the Fight for Transparency
open society, The Missing Diagnosis
political opposition to targeted transparency, A Matter of Politics
transparency efforts, conclusions on, Conclusion
open source software
Department of Defense guidance on use by military, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
reason projects work, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
used to build Tweet Congress, Open source fuels open government
using to disseminate government information, Use open source tools
open source software for open government, Open Source Software for Open Government AgenciesReferences
advantages of FLOSS, Advantages of FLOSS for Government and Public Agencies
hurdles in adopting FLOSS, Open Source Software for Open Government Agencies
making it easy to experiment and learn, Make It Easy to Experiment and Learn
management best practices, Best Practices: ManagementPromote Collaboration and Pooling of Resources
social best practices, Best Practices: SocialUse the Migration As an Opportunity to Improve Users’ Skills
technical best practices, Best Practices: TechnicalCompile and Update a Detailed Migration Workbook
Open Systems Interconnect (OSI) model, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
open systems, design for participation, Lesson 3: Design for ParticipationLesson 3: Design for Participation
OpenCongress.org, Patch Culture, This Is the Mashable Now, Congressional Mashups, The Future Is Now
applications using GovTrack.us data, Engaging the GovTrack Community
OpenCRS.com, Demanding Government Data: Public Money Versus Private Research
OpenSecrets.org, Conclusion
O’Reilly, Tim, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author, By the People, Making Data More Accessible

P

PACER database (federal judiciary), By the People, RECAP: Freeing PACER Documents for Public Use
Palin, Sarah, From Policy to Politicians
paper copies versus online data disclosure, Disclosing Government Data: Paper Versus the Internet
parliamentary procedure, Support for Online Civic Deliberation
participation
citizen participation in government employees’ networks, Extend the Network
data mining allowing harnessing of, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
design principle, meaning in technology context, A Robustness Principle for Government
designing for, Lesson 3: Design for ParticipationLesson 3: Design for Participation
participatory government, online town halls and, Online Town Hall or “Participation Theater”?
patch culture, Patch Culture
patent and trademark database, online, Liberating Government Data: Carl Malamud Versus the Man
Patent and Trademark Office (PTO), Liberating Government Data: Carl Malamud Versus the Man
patterns and antipatterns, Engineering Good Government
PC era, keys to success, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
PC market, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
PDFs, limitations as format for data disclosure, State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
Pentagon, internal transparency efforts, Transparency Inside OutConclusion
complexity creating opacity, Complexity Creates Opacity
market focus on proposals, not products, A Market Focused on Proposals, Not Products
necessary improvements for government, Framing the WindowConclusion
one-off apps obscuring information, Kaleidoscope IT: One-Off Apps Obscure Information
transparency meets institutional inertia, Transparency, Meet Institutional Inertia
performance data on government spending, Changing the Culture to Emphasize Effectiveness, Performance, and Equity
Perkins, Frances, By the People
Personal Democracy Forum, Reversing the Obscurity of Public Servants, What Comes Next, Crowdsourcing in Action
photo-sharing sites, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
phrase nets, Policy
planned systems versus emergent systems, Limiting Factors and the Internet
platform provider, competition with developer ecosystem, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
platform, government as, Government As a Platform, Making Data More Accessible
architecture leading to most generative outcome, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
big government versus small government debate, Lesson 6: Lower the Barriers to Experimentation
electronic governance platform for emergent democracy, One Click Orgs and Virtual Corporations
encouraging private sector to build applications using government data, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
examples, By the People
gift economy and platforms, The Next Civil Service Culture: The Gift Economy
open standards sparking innovation and growth, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
preconditions, capacity for self-organization and collaboration, Two Preconditions to Government As Platform: Capacity for Self-Organization and Collaboration
radical change rather than patching systems, Lesson 7: Lead by Example
resistance from established culture, After the Collapse: Open Government and the Future of Civil Service
policy
changes to get deeper information on recovery-spending recipients, Policy Changes to Get Deeper Information on Recipients
changing government policy for transparency, Changing PoliciesChanging Policies
priorities, public involvement in discussion of, Online Town Hall or “Participation Theater”?
visualizing, Policy
Political Action Committees (PACs), campaign contributions, What Comes Next
political donor data, accessing, Case Study: FollowTheMoney.orgConclusion
bolstering public disclosure laws, Bolstering the Spirit of Public Disclosure Laws
challenges to state-level transparency, State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
meaningful disclosure with machine-readable formats, State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
National Institute on Money in State Politics, The National Institute on Money in State Politics’ Role in the Fight for Greater Transparency
recommendations for open data, In an Ideal World: Recommendations for Open Data
political opposition to targeted transparency, A Matter of Politics
politicians, visualizing, From Policy to Politicians
Politicopia wiki, Champions Discovered in All Branches of State Government
polling, deliberative, Online Civic Deliberation
Porkbusters (bloggers), This Is the Mashable Now
Postel, Jon, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
pothole map for Bakersfield, California streets, Gov→Media→People
Presidential Management Fellows (PMF) program, Bottom-Up Change Through Young Technologists
Presidential Records Act (PRA), Data Retention and Decommissioning
press conferences (people’s), Crowdsourcing in Action
Princeton University, Center for Information Technology Policy, RECAP: Freeing PACER Documents for Public Use
privacy
ethically questionable government information, Ethically Questionable Information (Privacy)
laws covering government data, The Act and Amendments
restrictions on government data, Privacy and Legal Restrictions
Privacy Act, Sharing Documents with the Public, Data-Sharing Integrity: Data Tethering
privacy imperative and open government, Open Government: The Privacy ImperativeConclusion
accountability for data use, Accountability
anonymous access for privacy enhancement, Anonymous Access
controlled backups of data, Controlled Backups
data minimization to enhance privacy, Privacy-Enhancing Practices
data retention and decommissioning, Data Retention and Decommissioning
data-sharing integrity and data tethering, Data-Sharing Integrity: Data Tethering
minimal disclosure, Minimal Disclosure
transparent transparency, Transparent Transparency
private sector
government competition with, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
need for transparency in, Transparency’s Moment?, The Missing Diagnosis
Project Vote Smart, The National Institute on Money in State Politics’ Role in the Fight for Greater Transparency
proposals for government IT projects, A Market Focused on Proposals, Not Products
ProPublica nonprofit newsroom, Policy
protocol-based cooperative work, Support for Online Civic Deliberation
public accounting systems, platform for citizens, The Dark Side of Open Government
Public Campaign, Conclusion
public policy
long tail of, The Long Tail of Public Policy
public servants’ obscurity, reversing, Reversing the Obscurity of Public Servants
public, defined as online, By the People
Public.Resource.Org, The Bad Old Days: When Insiders Ruled, Changing Policy from the Outside
PublicMarkup.org, New Technologies and Civic Life
(see also Sunlight Foundation)
publishing data online, formats for, Providing for Reuse and Innovation

Q

QSOS and FLOSSMETRICS projects, Consider All the Factors, Both Technical and Contextual
Quaid, Dennis, Why Open Digital Standards Matter in Government
questions on education, visualizations of, Policy

S

satellites, Government As a Platform
scaling mechanism, democracy as, Democracy As a Scaling MechanismIncreasing Scale, Increasing Formalization
Schacht, Sarah, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Schaper, Nick, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Schrier, Bill, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Schuler, Douglas, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Schultze, Stephen, RECAP: Freeing PACER Documents for Public Use
screen scraping, Screen Scraping Congress
search engines, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
inaccessibility of government data to, Toward a Findable Government
search for Jim Gray, Conclusion
search, advanced, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
secrecy culture in federal agencies, Changing the Culture Within Government
secrecy, avoiding with access to public information, Constitutional Guidance: Avoid Secrecy Via Access
Securities and Exchange Commission (SEC), EDGAR database, By the People, The Bad Old Days: When Insiders Ruled
forced to make data available over Internet, Liberating Government Data: Carl Malamud Versus the Man
SeeClickFix company, A Robustness Principle for Government
self-government
informal, evolution of, Informal Self-Government
self-organization
Coasean collapse and, The Coasean Collapse
precondition to government as platform, Two Preconditions to Government As Platform: Capacity for Self-Organization and Collaboration
self-service replacements for government functions, A Robustness Principle for Government
semi-structured messages, Support for Online Civic Deliberation
September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, The Culture of Bureaucracies and Homeland Security
FOIA request denials after, Exemptions, Denials, and Delays
service-oriented architecture
data-driven, for government, Practical Steps for Government Agencies
service-oriented architecture (Amazon), Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
sharing of information among government agencies, Ethically Questionable Information (Sharing)
shelfware, A Peace Corps for Programmers
ShovelWatch project, Crowdsourcing in Action
Sifry, Micah L., How This Book Is Organized, About the Author
Skype, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
social capital, harnessing, Harnessing Social Capital
social media, Conclusion
(see also Tweet Congress)
emergence of social networks among government employees, Two Preconditions to Government As Platform: Capacity for Self-Organization and Collaboration
entrepreneurial insurgency and use by minority party, Entrepreneurial Insurgency: Republicans Connect With the American PeopleConclusion
government employees’ use of, GovLoop and BRIDGE: Networks for Government EmployeesConclusion
guidelines for use by Utah state government employees, Concerns About Security and Productivity
information flow on government activities, Gov→Media→People
information on legislative process, Revealing Obscured Government Data
information sharing about participants, Ethically Questionable Information (Sharing)
people coming together to work for change, An Alternative
success of Web 2.0, Government As a Platform
use by federal government agencies, Open Data and Open Government
use by government agencies, Government As a Platform
user participation and co-creation of value, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
social relations, human capability for, Informal Self-Government
Society of Professional Journalists, The Act and Amendments
South Carolina, public disclosure of campaign finances, State-Level Transparency Faces Serious Challenges
standards reference model, Order from Chaos: The Standards Reference Model
Constitution as, The Constitution As a Standards Reference Model
Stanford University students confronting Condoleezza Rice, Crowdsourcing in Action
state legislatures
communications with constituents, Improving Communication without Being Crushed by Email
websites for, Constitutional Guidance: Avoid Secrecy Via Access
state political offices, campaign finance (see political donor data, accessing)
state politics
MAPLight.org data on money and politics, Other Tools
StationStops (iPhone app), Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
stocks options for executives, backdating of, Crowdsourcing in Action
stovepipe antipattern, The First Constitution
Sunlight Foundation, The National Institute on Money in State Politics’ Role in the Fight for Greater Transparency
Apps for America, Creating a Developer Corps
Congressional earmarks bubble charts, Policy
Fortune 535 Project, Good Data Doesn’t Mean Good Results
Read the Bill Initiative, Social Media and the Fight for Transparency
Transparency Corps, This Is the Mashable Now
Transparency Timeline, The Bad Old Days: When Insiders Ruled
Sunstein, Cass, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
Superfund sites, Conclusion
Swartz, Aaron, How This Book Is Organized, About the Author

T

Talking Points Memo (TPM) sites, Crowdsourcing in Action
Tapscott, Don, Foreword
targeted transparency, Targeted Transparency
conclusion on current efforts, Conclusion
Tauberer, Joshua, How This Book Is Organized, Citizen Initiatives Lead the Way, About the Author (see GovTrack.us case study)
Tauzin, Billy, Why Open Digital Standards Matter in Government
taxis versus cosmos, Limiting Factors and the Internet
TC effect, Impact
TCP/IP
as example of government-funded project, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
OSI model and, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
platform components used by Tim Berners-Lee, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001, The Culture of Bureaucracies and Homeland Security
FOIA request denials afterward, Exemptions, Denials, and Delays
terrorist watch list, problems with, Tipping Point: The Extinction of Pencils
text visualization, From Policy to Politicians
Thaler, Richard, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
Themis Constitution, The Themis Constitution
THOMAS system (Library of Congress), Citizen Initiatives Lead the Way
Thomas.gov website, Meeting Modern-Day Needs, Opening Legislative Data
topic analysis, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
Torvalds, Linus, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
town hall meetings, online, Online Town Hall or “Participation Theater”?
trademark and patent database, Liberating Government Data: Carl Malamud Versus the Man
transparency, Open Government and Open SocietyConclusion
barriers to government transparency, Barriers to Transparency, Government Transparency: Three Hurdles
design principle, meaning in technology context, A Robustness Principle for Government
diagnosing problem solved by, The Missing Diagnosis
efforts at targeted transparency, conclusions on, Conclusion
examples of application in private sector, Targeted Transparency
federal government changes needed for, Framing the WindowConclusion
fight for, social media and, Social Media and the Fight for Transparency
movement for, Transparency’s Moment?
open society and, The Missing Diagnosis
political opposition to targeted transparency, A Matter of Politics
Sunlight Foundation, Transparency Timeline, The Bad Old Days: When Insiders Ruled
targeted, Targeted Transparency
in technical systems underlying open government, Transparent Transparency
when it’s useful, When Is Transparency Useful?An Alternative
generating public databases, Generating Databases for the Public
interpreting databases for the public, Interpreting Databases for the Public
lack of investigation and enforcement, Interpreting Databases for the Public
people coming together to work for change, An Alternative
sharing documents with public, When Is Transparency Useful?
Transparency and Open Government memo (Obama), Memo from President Obama on Transparency and Open Government
transport layer (Layer 4) of OSI model, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
treemaps, Policy
Triangle Shirtwaist fire, By the People
Tweet Congress, Case Study: Tweet CongressConclusion, Congress Tweets, Too
building the application, Building the App
Congressional supporters of Tweet Congress and Twitter use, So, Who Gets It?
getting elected representatives on Twitter, Starting the Movement: We Are All Lobbyists Now
impact on social media use by government, Impact
Twitter
Congress members on, Congress Tweets, Too
as example of simple system, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
openness of updates, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
Utah Twitter page aggregating government feeds, Utah’s Multimedia Portal Leverages Web 2.0 Services
typed messages, Support for Online Civic Deliberation

U

U.S.S. Nimitz diagrams, Why Open Digital Standards Matter in Government
Udell, Jon, Policy
unemployment rate in 2009, My Data Can’t Tell You That
Uniform Crime Reports (FBI), Federal Data: Approximations Galore
Unix, open source design, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
unreadable software formats, Standards and the Problems with Digital Technology
USASpending.gov, This Is the Mashable Now, Appointing the first federal CIO, Putting It All Together: Disclosure of Federal Spending
government data accuracy and, My Data Can’t Tell You That
recovery funds spending, Good Data Doesn’t Mean Good Results
user analytics for government IT products, User Analytics
user feedback, Competition Is Critical to Any Ecosystem
user participation and creation of value, Government As a Platform, Lesson 5: Data Mining Allows You to Harness Implicit Participation
Utah.gov case study, A Historical PerspectiveConclusion
champions in all branches of state government, Champions Discovered in All Branches of State Government
concerns about security and productivity, Concerns About Security and Productivity
current online services and government transparency, What Today’s Landscape Looks Like
making data more accessible, Making Data More Accessible
shift to Web 2.0 principles and tools, The Dramatic Shift to Web 2.0 Principles and ToolsMaking Data More Accessible

V

vending machine government, Government As a Platform
Vermont, virtual corporations, One Click Orgs and Virtual Corporations
Viégas, Fernanda, How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors
virtual corporations, One Click Orgs and Virtual Corporations
visual literacy, Visual Literacy
visualization, Case Study: Many EyesConclusion
of policy, Policy
of politicians, From Policy to Politicians
visualization tools for government data, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
Vogels, Werner, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve
votes of Congress members
Congress Votes database, Accessing Government Data: Open Distribution Versus Jealous Control
voting records in Senate in XML, Changing Policy from the Outside

W

Wall Street Journal, Crowdsourcing in Action
Washington Post, Congress Votes database, Accessing Government Data: Open Distribution Versus Jealous Control
Washington Times, Crowdsourcing in Action
Washington’s golden rule (see money, influence on government)
Wattenberg, Martin, How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors
Web 2.0, Government As a Platform
importance of data and algorithms producing value from it, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
lessons for opening process of co-creating government, Co-creation, Co-optation, or Collision?
Utah state government shift to principles and tools, The Dramatic Shift to Web 2.0 Principles and ToolsMaking Data More Accessible
Web 2.0 revolution in government, Deploying Twenty-First-Century TechnologyConclusion
appointment of first Federal CIO, Appointing the first federal CIO
deploying 21st-century technology, Deploying Twenty-First-Century Technology
encouraging data mashups, Encouraging data mashups
webcasting of Congressional hearings, By the People
websites (finished) for government data, Why Bother with Bulk?
Weil, David, How This Book Is Organized, About the Authors
White House website, Open For Questions area, Crowdsourcing in Action
White House, Data.gov initiative, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
wiki, New Technologies and Civic Life
WikiLeaks.org, Demanding Government Data: Public Money Versus Private Research
Wikipedia, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
crowdsourcing on, A Robustness Principle for Government
wikis, Providing for Reuse and Innovation
enabling collaboration among government employees, Two Preconditions to Government As Platform: Capacity for Self-Organization and Collaboration
Willis, Derek, Accessing Government Data: Open Distribution Versus Jealous Control
“Wintel” duopoly of Microsoft and Intel, Data Is the “Intel Inside”
wisdom of crowds, Barack Obama and, “You Can Be the Eyes and Ears”: Barack Obama and the Wisdom of CrowdsCo-creation, Co-optation, or Collision?
Change.gov transition site, Change.gov Shows How to Change the Gov
government spending on economic crisis, watching over, “You Can Be the Eyes and Ears”
online town hall, Online Town Hall or “Participation Theater”?
open data and open government, Open Data and Open Government
opening up process of co-creating government, Co-creation, Co-optation, or Collision?
Recovery.gov site (under construction), Recovery.gov Site Still Under Construction
word tree visualization, From Policy to Politicians
World Wide Web, Lesson 1: Open Standards Spark Innovation and Growth
implementation by Tim Berners-Lee, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
platform enabling participation, Government As a Platform
use as tool to revolutionize business, Lesson 4: Learn from Your “Hackers”
Wyoming, campaign finance disclosure legislation, Accessing Political Donor Data Fraught with Problems

X

XML
Congressional voting records in, Accessing Government Data: Open Distribution Versus Jealous Control
roll call voting records in Senate, Changing Policy from the Outside
using to disseminate government information, Use XML to disseminate data

Y

YouTube, Lesson 3: Design for Participation
use by Republican Congressional members, I YouTube, You YouTube
video of Condoleezza Rice at Stanford University, Crowdsourcing in Action
video of Senator George Allen making racial slur, Crowdsourcing in Action
Yu, Harlan, How This Book Is Organized, Lesson 2: Build a Simple System and Let It Evolve, About the Authors, RECAP: Freeing PACER Documents for Public Use

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