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Power Electronics Handbook, 4th Edition

Book Description

Power Electronics Handbook, Fourth Edition, brings together over 100 years of combined experience in the specialist areas of power engineering to offer a fully revised and updated expert guide to total power solutions. Designed to provide the best technical and most commercially viable solutions available, this handbook undertakes any or all aspects of a project requiring specialist design, installation, commissioning and maintenance services.

Comprising a complete revision throughout and enhanced chapters on semiconductor diodes and transistors and thyristors, this volume includes renewable resource content useful for the new generation of engineering professionals. This market leading reference has new chapters covering electric traction theory and motors and wide band gap (WBG) materials and devices. With this book in hand, engineers will be able to execute design, analysis and evaluation of assigned projects using sound engineering principles and adhering to the business policies and product/program requirements.

  • Includes a list of leading international academic and professional contributors
  • Offers practical concepts and developments for laboratory test plans
  • Includes new technical chapters on electric vehicle charging and traction theory and motors
  • Includes renewable resource content useful for the new generation of engineering professionals

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Contributors
  6. 1: Introduction
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1 Power Electronics Defined
    3. 1.2 Key Characteristics
    4. 1.3 Trends in Power Supplies
    5. 1.4 Conversion Examples
    6. 1.5 Tools for Analysis and Design
    7. 1.6 Sample Applications
    8. 1.7 Summary
  7. Section I: Power Electronic Devices
    1. 2: Semiconductor Diodes and Transistors
      1. Abstract
      2. 2.1 Semiconductor Diode
      3. 2.2 Power Bipolar Transistor
      4. 2.3 Power MOSFET
      5. 2.4 Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor
      6. 2.5 Swtiching evaluation of a Real MOSFET
      7. 2.6 Heatsink Thermal Design for Power Semiconductors
      8. 2.7 Transistor Selection Criteria
    2. 3: Thyristors
      1. Abstract
      2. 3.1 Introduction
      3. 3.2 Basic Structure and Operation
      4. 3.3 Static Characteristics
      5. 3.4 Dynamic Switching Characteristics
      6. 3.5 Thyristor Parameters
      7. 3.6 Types of Thyristors
      8. 3.7 Gate Drive Requirements
      9. 3.8 Applications
    3. 4: Static Induction Devices
      1. Abstract
      2. 4.1 Introduction
      3. 4.2 Theory of Static Induction Devices
      4. 4.3 Characteristics of SIT
      5. 4.4 Bipolar Mode Operation of SI devices (BSIT)
      6. 4.5 Emitters for Static Induction Devices
      7. 4.6 Static Induction Diode
      8. 4.7 Lateral Punch-Through Transistor
      9. 4.8 Static Induction Transistor Logic
      10. 4.9 BJT Saturation Protected by SIT
      11. 4.10 Static Induction MOS Transistor
      12. 4.11 Space Charge Limiting Load (SCLL)
      13. 4.12 Power MOS Transistors
      14. 4.13 Static Induction Thyristor
      15. 4.14 Gate Turn Off Thyristor
    4. 5: SiC and GaN Power Semiconductor Devices
      1. Abstract
      2. 5.1 Background
      3. 5.2 Silicon Carbide and Gallium Nitride Materials
      4. 5.3 SiC Power Devices
      5. 5.4 GaN Power Devices
      6. Appendix Lightly Doped Drift Region Thickness
    5. 6: Power Electronic Modules
      1. Abstract
      2. 6.1 Introduction
      3. 6.2 Discrete Power Devices Versus Power Modules
      4. 6.3 An Example of Power Module
      5. 6.4 Manufacturing Process
      6. 6.5 Types of Power Electronic Modules
      7. 6.6 Thermal Management of Power Modules
      8. 6.7 Reliability of Power Modules
      9. 6.8 Design Guidelines and Considerations
  8. Section II: Power Conversion
    1. 7: Diode Rectifiers
      1. Abstract
      2. 7.1 Introduction
      3. 7.2 Single-Phase Diode Rectifiers
      4. 7.3 Three-Phase Diode Rectifiers
      5. 7.4 Poly-Phase Diode Rectifiers
      6. 7.5 Filtering Systems in Rectifier Circuits
      7. 7.6 High-Frequency Diode Rectifier Circuits
    2. 8: Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers
      1. Abstract
      2. 8.1 Introduction
      3. 8.2 Line-Commutated Single-Phase Controlled Rectifiers
      4. 8.3 Unity Power Factor Single-Phase Rectifiers
    3. 9: Three-Phase Controlled Rectifiers
      1. Abstract
      2. 9.1 Introduction
      3. 9.2 Line-Commutated Controlled Rectifiers
      4. 9.3 Force-Commutated Three-Phase Controlled Rectifiers
    4. 10: DC-DC Converters
      1. Abstract
      2. 10.1 Introduction
      3. 10.2 DC Choppers
      4. 10.3 Step-Down (Buck) Converter
      5. 10.4 Step-Up (Boost) Converter
      6. 10.5 Buck-Boost Converter
      7. 10.6 Ćuk Converter
      8. 10.7 Effects of Parasitic Components
      9. 10.8 Synchronous and Bidirectional Converters
      10. 10.9 Control Principles
      11. 10.10 Applications of DC-DC Converters
    5. 11: Inverters
      1. Abstract
      2. 11.1 Introduction
      3. 11.2 Single-Phase Inverters
      4. 11.3 Three-Phase Voltage Source Inverters
      5. 11.4 Three-Phase Current Source Inverters
      6. 11.5 Multilevel Inverters
      7. 11.6 Closed-Loop Operation of Inverters
      8. 11.7 Regeneration in Inverters
    6. 12: Resonant and Soft-Switching Converters
      1. Abstract
      2. 12.1 Introduction
      3. 12.2 Classification
      4. 12.3 Resonant Switch
      5. 12.4 Quasi-Resonant Converters
      6. 12.5 ZVS in High Frequency Applications
      7. 12.6 Multi-resonant Converters
      8. 12.7 Zero-voltage-transition Converters
      9. 12.8 Non-dissipative Active Clamp Network
      10. 12.9 Load Resonant Converters
      11. 12.10 Control Circuits for Resonant Converters
      12. 12.11 Extended-Period Quasi-Resonant Converters
      13. 12.12 Soft-Switching and EMI Suppression
      14. 12.13 Snubbers and Soft-Switching for High Power Devices
      15. 12.14 Soft-Switching DC-AC Power Inverters
    7. 13: Multilevel Power Converters
      1. Abstract
      2. 13.1 Introduction
      3. 13.2 Multilevel Power Converter Structures
      4. 13.3 Multilevel Converter PWM Modulation Strategies
      5. 13.4 Conclusion
    8. 14: AC-AC Converters
      1. Abstract
      2. 14.1 Introduction
      3. 14.2 Single-Phase AC-AC Voltage Controller
      4. 14.3 Three-Phase AC-AC Voltage Controllers
      5. 14.4 Cycloconverters
      6. 14.5 Matrix Converter
      7. 14.6 High Frequency Linked Single-Phase to Three-Phase Matrix Converters
      8. 14.7 Applications of AC-AC Converters
    9. 15: Multiphase Converters
      1. Abstract
      2. 15.1 Introduction
      3. 15.2 Types and Topologies of Multiphase Converters
      4. 15.3 Multiphase Multipulse AC-DC Converters
      5. 15.4 Multiphase DC-AC Converters
      6. 15.5 Multiphase AC-AC Converter
      7. 15.6 Multiphase DC-DC Converter
    10. 16: Power Factor Correction Circuits
      1. Abstract
      2. 16.1 Introduction
      3. 16.2 Definition of PF and THD
      4. 16.3 Power Factor Correction
      5. 16.4 CCM Shaping Technique
      6. 16.5 DCM Input Technique
      7. 16.6 Summary
    11. 17: Magnetic Circuit Design for Power Electronics
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 17.1 Introduction
      4. 17.2 Magnetic Materials and Characteristics
      5. 17.3 Magnetic Circuits
      6. 17.4 Transformer Design
      7. 17.5 High-Frequency Effects
  9. Section III: General Applications
    1. 18: Solid-State Pulsed Power Modulators and Capacitor Charging Applications
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 18.1 Introduction
      4. 18.2 Power Semiconductors for PP
      5. 18.3 Load Types and Requirements
      6. 18.4 Solid-State PP Topologies
      7. 18.5 Power Electronics in Capacitor Charging Applications
      8. 18.6 Conclusions and Future Trends
    2. 19: Uninterruptible Power Supplies
      1. Abstract
      2. 19.1 Introduction
      3. 19.2 Classifications
      4. 19.3 Performance Evaluation
      5. 19.4 Applications
      6. 19.5 Control Techniques
      7. 19.6 Energy Storage Devices
    3. 20: Power Supplies
      1. Abstract
      2. 20.1 Introduction
      3. 20.2 Linear Series Voltage Regulator
      4. 20.3 Linear Shunt Voltage Regulator
      5. 20.4 Integrated Circuit Voltage Regulators
      6. 20.5 Switching Regulators
    4. 21: Electronic Ballasts
      1. Abstract
      2. 21.1 Introduction
      3. 21.2 High Frequency Supply of Discharge Lamps
      4. 21.3 Discharge Lamp Modeling
      5. 21.4 Resonant Inverters for Electronic Ballasts
      6. 21.5 High-Power Factor Electronic Ballasts
      7. 21.6 Applications
    5. 22: Wireless Power Transfer
      1. Abstract
      2. 22.1 Introduction
      3. 22.2 Methods of Wireless Power Transfer
      4. 22.3 Inductive WPT System Applications
      5. 22.4 Resonant Inductive WPT System Design
      6. 22.5 WPT Systems With Multiple Coils
      7. 22.6 A Glance Into WPT Power Source Converter
      8. 22.7 Efficient Magnetic Link Design
      9. 22.8 Summary
  10. Section IV: Power Generation and Distribution
    1. 23: Energy Sources
      1. Abstract
      2. 23.1 Introduction
      3. 23.2 Available Energy Sources
      4. 23.3 Electric Energy Generation Technologies
      5. 23.4 Conclusions
    2. 24: Photovoltaic System Conversion
      1. Abstract
      2. 24.1 Introduction
      3. 24.2 Solar Cell Characteristics
      4. 24.3 Photovoltaic Technology Operation
      5. 24.4 Maximum Power Point Tracking Components
      6. 24.5 MPPT Controlling Algorithms
      7. 24.6 Grid-Connected Photovoltaic System
      8. 24.7 Stand-Alone Photovoltaic System
      9. 24.8 Factors Affecting PV Output
      10. 24.9 PV System Design
    3. 25: Power Electronics for Renewable Energy Sources
      1. Abstract
      2. 25.1 Introduction
      3. 25.2 Power Electronics for Photovoltaic Power Systems
      4. 25.3 Power Electronics for Wind Power Systems
      5. 25.4 Power Electronics for Hybrid Energy Systems
    4. 26: Electric Power Transmission
      1. Abstract
      2. 26.1 Elements of Power System
      3. 26.2 Generators and Transformers
      4. 26.3 Transmission Line
      5. 26.4 Factors That Limit Power Transfer in Transmission Line
      6. 26.5 Effect of Temperature on Conductor Sag or Tension
      7. 26.6 Standard and Guidelines on Thermal Rating Calculation
      8. 26.7 Optimizing Power Transmission Capacity
      9. 26.8 Overvoltages and Insulation Requirements of Transmission Lines
      10. 26.9 Methods of Controlling Overvoltages
      11. 26.10 Insulation Coordination
    5. 27: HVDC Transmission
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 27.1 Introduction
      4. 27.2 Main Components of HVDC Converter Station
      5. 27.3 Analysis of Converter Bridge
      6. 27.4 Controls and Protection
      7. 27.5 MTDC Operation
      8. 27.6 Application
      9. 27.7 Modern Trends
      10. 27.8 VSC-HVDC System
      11. 27.9 Control of VSC-HVDC System
      12. 27.10 HVDC System Simulation Techniques
      13. 27.11 Concluding Remarks
    6. 28: Flexible AC Transmission Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 28.1 Introduction
      3. 28.2 Ideal Shunt Compensator
      4. 28.3 Ideal Series Compensator
      5. 28.4 Synthesis of FACTS Controllers
      6. 28.5 Ancillary Services
  11. Section V: Motor Drive
    1. 29: Drive Types and Specifications
      1. Abstract
      2. 29.1 An Overview
      3. 29.2 Drives Requirements and Specifications
      4. 29.3 Drive Classifications and Characteristics
      5. 29.4 Load Profiles and Characteristics
      6. 29.5 VSD Topologies
      7. 29.6 PWM-VSI DRIVE
      8. 29.7 Applications
      9. 29.8 Summary
    2. 30: Motor Drives
      1. Abstract
      2. 30.1 Introduction
      3. 30.2 DC Motor Drives
      4. 30.3 Induction Motor Drives
      5. 30.4 Synchronous Motor Drives
      6. 30.5 Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Motor Drives
      7. 30.6 Permanent-Magnet Brushless DC Motor Drives
      8. 30.7 Servo Drives
      9. 30.8 Stepper Motor Drives
      10. 30.9 Switched-Reluctance Motor Drives
      11. 30.10 Synchronous Reluctance Motor Drives
    3. 31: Fundamentals of Power Electronics Controlled Electric Propulsion
      1. Abstract
      2. 31.1 Introduction
      3. 31.2 Electric Vehicular Technology
      4. 31.3 Classification of Electric Vehicular Technology [6]
      5. 31.4 Electrical Propulsion System
      6. 31.5 Electronic Control Unit
      7. 31.6 Power Management and Control Algorithm
      8. 31.7 Summary
    4. 32: Automotive Applications of Power Electronics
      1. Abstract
      2. 32.1 Introduction
      3. 32.2 The Present Automotive Electrical Power System
      4. 32.3 System Environment
      5. 32.4 Functions Enabled by Power Electronics
      6. 32.5 Multiplexed Load Control
      7. 32.6 Electromechanical Power Conversion
      8. 32.7 Dual/High Voltage Automotive Electrical Systems
      9. 32.8 Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles
      10. 32.9 Summary
    5. 33: Fuel-Cell Systems for Transportations
      1. Abstract
      2. 33.1 Introduction
      3. 33.2 Hydrogen Infrastructure and Vehicle Hydrogen Storage System
      4. 33.3 Fuel Cells and Types
      5. 33.4 Fuel Cell System Components
      6. 33.5 Fuel Cells in Automotive Applications
      7. 33.6 Conclusion
    6. 34: Wireless Charging of Electric Vehicles
      1. Abstract
      2. 34.1 Introduction to Wireless Electric Vehicles
      3. 34.2 Static Inductive Charging of Battery Electric Vehicles
      4. 34.3 Dynamic Inductive Charging of Road Powered Electric Vehicles
      5. 34.4 Design Considerations of Wireless Electric Vehicles
      6. 34.5 Summary
  12. Section VI: Control
    1. 35: Linear and Nonlinear Control of Switching Power Converters
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 35.1 Introduction
      4. 35.2 Switching Power Converter Control Using State-Space Averaged Models
      5. 35.3 Sliding-Mode Control of Switching Power Converters
      6. 35.4 Predictive Optimum Control of Switching Power Converters
      7. 35.5 Fuzzy Logic Control of Switching power converters
      8. 35.6 Backstepping Control of Switching Power Converters
      9. 35.7 Conclusions
    2. 36: Fuzzy-Logic Applications in Electric Drives and Power Electronics
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 36.1 Introduction
      4. 36.2 PI/PD-Like Fuzzy Control Structure
      5. 36.3 FNN PI/PD-Like Fuzzy Control Architecture
      6. 36.4 Learning Algorithm-Based EKF
      7. 36.5 Fuzzy PID Control Design-Based Genetic Optimization
      8. 36.6 Classical PID Versus Fuzzy-PID Controller
      9. 36.7 Genetic-Based Autotuning of Fuzzy-PID Controller
      10. 36.8 Fuzzy and H∞ Control Design∞ Control Design
      11. 36.9 Fuzzy Control for DC-DC Converters
      12. 36.10 Fuzzy Control Design for Switch-Mode Power Converters
      13. 36.11 Optimum Topology of the Fuzzy Controller
      14. 36.12 Adaptive Network-Based Fuzzy Control System for DC-DC Converters
      15. 36.13 Summary
    3. 37: Artificial Neural Network Applications in Power Electronics and Electric Drives
      1. Abstract
      2. 37.1 Introduction
      3. 37.2 Conventional and Neural Function Approximators
      4. 37.3 ANN-Based Estimation in Induction Motor Drives
      5. 37.4 ANN-Based Controls in Motor Drives
      6. 37.5 ANN-Based Controls in Power Converters
    4. 38: Novel AI-Based Soft Computing Applications in Motor Drives
      1. Abstract
      2. 38.1 Introduction
      3. 38.2 Differences Between GA and PSO and Other Evolutionary Computation Techniques
      4. 38.3 Single Objective Genetic Optimization Search Algorithm (SOGA)
      5. 38.4 Single Objective Particle Swarm Optimization Search Algorithm (SOPSO)
      6. 38.5 Multiobjective Optimization (MOO)
      7. 38.6 Multiobjective Genetic Optimization Search Algorithm (MOGA)
      8. 38.7 Multiobjective Particle Swarm Optimization Search Algorithm (MOPSO)
      9. 38.8 GA and PSO Applications in Speed Control of Motor Drives
      10. 38.9 Conclusion
    5. 39: DSP-Based Control of Variable Speed Drives
      1. Abstract
      2. 39.1 Introduction
      3. 39.2 Variable Speed Control of AC Machines
      4. 39.3 General Structure of a Three-Phase AC Motor Controller
      5. 39.4 DSP-Based Control of Permanent Magnet Brushless DC Machines
      6. 39.5 DSP-Based Control of Permanent Magnet Synchronous Machines
      7. 39.6 DSP-Based Vector Control of Induction Motors
    6. 40: Predictive Control of Power Electronic Converters
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgment
      3. 40.1 Introduction
      4. 40.2 Theory of Predictive Control
      5. 40.3 Types of Predictive Control
      6. 40.4 Model Predictive Control for Power Electronics
      7. 40.5 MPC Applications in Power Electronic
  13. Section VII: Power Quality and EMI Issues
    1. 41: Active Power Filters
      1. Abstract
      2. Acknowledgments
      3. 41.1 Introduction
      4. 41.2 Types of Active Power Filters
      5. 41.3 Series Active Power Filters
      6. 41.4 Hybrid Active Power Filters
      7. 41.5 Predictive Control in Active Power Filters
    2. 42: EMI Effects of Power Converters
      1. Abstract
      2. 42.1 Introduction
      3. 42.2 Power Converters as Sources of EMI
      4. 42.3 Measurements of Conducted EMI
      5. 42.4 EMI Filters
      6. 42.5 Random Pulse Width Modulation
      7. 42.6 Other Means of Noise Suppression
      8. 42.7 EMC Standards
    3. 43: Power Electronics Standards
      1. Abstract
      2. 43.1 Introduction
      3. 43.2 General Review of Power Electronics Standards
      4. 43.3 Examples of IEEE Power Electronics Standards
      5. 43.4 Conclusions
  14. Section VIII: Simulation and Packaging
    1. 44: Computer Simulation of Power Electronics and Motor Drives
      1. Abstract
      2. 44.1 Introduction
      3. 44.2 Use of Simulation Tools for Design and Analysis
      4. 44.3 Simulation of Power Electronics Circuits With LTspice
      5. 44.4 Simulations of Power Electronic Circuits and Electric Machines
      6. 44.5 Simulations of AC Induction Machines Using Field Oriented (Vector) Control
      7. 44.6 Simulation of Sensorless Vector Control Using LTspice
      8. 44.7 Conclusions
    2. 45: Design for Reliability of Power Electronic Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 45.1 Introduction
      3. 45.2 Power Electronic Converters and Mission Profiles
      4. 45.3 Design for Reliability (DfR) of Power Electronic Systems
      5. 45.4 Case Study
      6. 45.5 Summary
    3. 46: Thermal Modeling and Analysis of Power Electronic Components and Systems
      1. Abstract
      2. 46.1 Introduction
      3. 46.2 Background
      4. 46.3 Semiconductor Device Modelling
      5. 46.4 Magnetic Components
      6. 46.5 Thermal Conduction
      7. 46.6 Convection
      8. 46.7 Radiation
      9. 46.8 Steady State Thermal Circuit Modeling
      10. 46.9 Dynamic Thermal Circuit Modeling
      11. 46.10 Approximating Distributed Thermal Behaviour Using Ladder Networks
      12. 46.11 Transient Thermal Impedance
      13. 46.12 Procedure to Calculate the Transient Thermal Impedance
      14. 46.13 Finite Element Numerical Methods
      15. 46.14 Dynamic Thermal Equivalent Circuit Models
      16. 46.15 Summary
  15. Index