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Power Quality in Power Systems and Electrical Machines, 2nd Edition

Book Description

The second edition of this must-have reference covers power quality issues in four parts, including new discussions related to renewable energy systems. The first part of the book provides background on causes, effects, standards, and measurements of power quality and harmonics. Once the basics are established the authors move on to harmonic modeling of power systems, including components and apparatus (electric machines). The final part of the book is devoted to power quality mitigation approaches and devices, and the fourth part extends the analysis to power quality solutions for renewable energy systems. Throughout the book worked examples and exercises provide practical applications, and tables, charts, and graphs offer useful data for the modeling and analysis of power quality issues.

  • Provides theoretical and practical insight into power quality problems of electric machines and systems
  • 134 practical application (example) problems with solutions
  • 125 problems at the end of chapters dealing with practical applications
  • 924 references, mostly journal articles and conference papers, as well as national and international standards and guidelines

Table of Contents

  1. Cover image
  2. Title page
  3. Table of Contents
  4. Copyright
  5. Preface
  6. Acknowledgments
  7. Chapter 1: Introduction to Power Quality
    1. Abstract
    2. 1.1 Definition of power quality
    3. 1.2 Causes of disturbances in power systems
    4. 1.3 Classification of power quality issues
    5. 1.4 Formulations and measures used for power quality
    6. 1.5 Effects of poor power quality on power system devices
    7. 1.6 Standards and guidelines referring to power quality
    8. 1.7 Harmonic modeling philosophies
    9. 1.8 Power quality improvement techniques
    10. 1.9 Summary
    11. 1.10 Problems
  8. Chapter 2: Harmonic Models of Transformers
    1. Abstract
    2. 2.1 Sinusoidal (linear) modeling of transformers
    3. 2.2 Harmonic losses in transformers
    4. 2.3 Derating of single-phase transformers
    5. 2.4 Nonlinear harmonic models of transformers
    6. 2.5 Ferroresonance of power transformers
    7. 2.6 Effects of solar-geomagnetic disturbances on power systems and transformers
    8. 2.7 Grounding
    9. 2.8 Measurement of derating of three-phase transformers
    10. 2.9 Summary
    11. 2.10 Problems
  9. Chapter 3: Modeling and Analysis of Induction Machines
    1. Abstract
    2. 3.1 Complete sinusoidal equivalent circuit of a three-phase induction machine
    3. 3.2 Magnetic fields of three-phase machines for the calculation of inductive machine parameters
    4. 3.3 Steady-state stability of a three-phase induction machine
    5. 3.4 Spatial (space) harmonics of a three-phase induction machine
    6. 3.5 Time harmonics of a three-phase induction machine
    7. 3.6 Fundamental and harmonic torques of an induction machine
    8. 3.7 Measurement results for three- and single-phase induction machines
    9. 3.8 Inter- and subharmonic torques of three-phase induction machines
    10. 3.9 Interaction of space and time harmonics of three-phase induction machines
    11. 3.10 Conclusions concerning induction machine harmonics
    12. 3.11 Voltage-stress winding failures of ac motors fed by variable-frequency, voltage- and current-source pwm inverters
    13. 3.12 Nonlinear harmonic models of three-phase induction machines
    14. 3.13 Static and dynamic rotor eccentricity of three-phase induction machines
    15. 3.14 Operation of three-phase machines within a single-phase power system
    16. 3.15 Classification of three-phase induction machines
    17. 3.16 Summary
    18. 3.17 Problems
  10. Chapter 4: Modeling and Analysis of Synchronous Machines
    1. Abstract
    2. 4.1 Sinusoidal state-space modeling of a synchronous machine in the time domain
    3. 4.2 Steady-state, transient, and subtransient operation
    4. 4.3 Harmonic modeling of a synchronous machine
    5. 4.4 Summary
    6. 4.5 Problems
  11. Chapter 5: Interaction of Harmonics with Capacitors
    1. Abstract
    2. 5.1 Application of capacitors to power-factor correction
    3. 5.2 Application of capacitors to reactive power compensation
    4. 5.3 Application of capacitors to harmonic filtering
    5. 5.4 Power quality problems associated with capacitors
    6. 5.5 Frequency and capacitance scanning
    7. 5.6 Harmonic constraints for capacitors
    8. 5.7 Equivalent circuits of capacitors
    9. 5.8 Summary
    10. 5.9 Problems
  12. Chapter 6: Lifetime Reduction of Transformers and Induction Machines
    1. Abstract
    2. 6.1 Rationale for relying on the worst-case conditions
    3. 6.2 Elevated temperature rise due to voltage harmonics
    4. 6.3 Weighted-harmonic factors
    5. 6.4 Exponents of weighted-harmonic factors
    6. 6.5 Additional losses or temperature rises versus weighted-harmonic factors
    7. 6.6 Arrhenius plots
    8. 6.7 Reaction rate equation
    9. 6.8 Decrease of lifetime due to an additional temperature rise
    10. 6.9 Reduction of lifetime of components with activation energy E = 1.1 eV due to harmonics of the terminal voltage within residential or commercial utility systems
    11. 6.10 Possible limits for harmonic voltages
    12. 6.11 Probabilistic and time-varying nature of harmonics
    13. 6.12 The cost of harmonics
    14. 6.13 Temperature as a function of time
    15. 6.14 Various operating modes of rotating machines
    16. 6.15 Summary
    17. 6.16 Problems
  13. Chapter 7: Power System Modeling under Nonsinusoidal Operating Conditions
    1. Abstract
    2. 7.1 Overview of a modern power system
    3. 7.2 Power system matrices
    4. 7.3 Fundamental power flow
    5. 7.4 Newton-based harmonic power flow
    6. 7.5 Classification of harmonic power flow techniques
    7. 7.6 Summary
    8. 7.7 Problems
  14. Chapter 8: Impact of Poor Power Quality on Reliability, Relaying and Security
    1. Abstract
    2. 8.1 Reliability indices
    3. 8.2 Degradation of reliability and security due to poor power quality
    4. 8.3 Tools for detecting poor power quality
    5. 8.4 Tools for improving reliability and security
    6. 8.5 Load shedding and load management
    7. 8.6 Energy-storage methods
    8. 8.7 Matching the operation of intermittent renewable power plants with energy storage
    9. 8.8 Summary
    10. 8.9 Problems
  15. Chapter 9: The Roles of Filters in Power Systems and Unified Power Quality Conditioners
    1. Abstract
    2. 9.1 Types of nonlinear loads
    3. 9.2 Classification of filters employed in power systems
    4. 9.3 Passive filters as used in power systems
    5. 9.4 Active filters
    6. 9.5 Hybrid power filters
    7. 9.6 Block diagram of active filters
    8. 9.7 Control of filters
    9. 9.8 Compensation devices at fundamental and harmonic frequencies
    10. 9.9 Unified power quality conditioner (UPQC)
    11. 9.10 The UPQC control system
    12. 9.11 UPQC control using the park (DQO) transformation
    13. 9.12 UPQC control based on the instantaneous real and imaginary power theory
    14. 9.13 Performance of the UPQC
    15. 9.14 Summary
  16. Chapter 10: Optimal Placement and Sizing of Shunt Capacitor Banks in the Presence of Harmonics
    1. Abstract
    2. 10.1 Reactive power compensation
    3. 10.2 Common types of distribution shunt capacitor banks
    4. 10.3 Classification of capacitor allocation techniques for sinusoidal operating conditions
    5. 10.4 Optimal placement and sizing of shunt capacitor banks in the presence of harmonics
    6. 10.5 Summary
  17. Chapter 11: Power Quality Solutions for Renewable Energy Systems
    1. Abstract
    2. 11.1 Energy conservation and efficiency
    3. 11.2 Photovoltaic and thermal solar (power) systems
    4. 11.3 Horizontal – and vertical-axes wind power (WP) plants
    5. 11.4 Complementary control of renewable plants with energy storage plants [144]
    6. 11.5 AC transmission lines versus DC lines
    7. 11.6 Fast-charging stations for electric cars
    8. 11.7 Off-shore renewable plants
    9. 11.8 Metering
    10. 11.9 Other renewable energy plants
    11. 11.10 Production of automotive fuel from wind, water, and CO2
    12. 11.11 Water efficiency
    13. 11.12 Village with 2,600 inhabitants achieves energy independence
    14. 11.13 Summary
    15. 11.14 Problems
  18. Appendix 1: Sampling Techniques
    1. 1.1 What criterion is used to select the sampling rate (see line 500 of two-channel program [81, chapter 2])?
    2. 1.2 What criterion is used to select the total number of conversions (line 850 of the two-channel program [81, chapter 2])?
    3. 1.3 Why are the two-channel program dimension and the array for the channel number not used for the five-channel program [81, chapter 2]?
    4. 1.4 What is the criterion for selecting the multiplying factor in step 9 (0.004882812 ≈ 0.004883) for the two- and five-channel configurations?
    5. 1.5 Why is in step 9 of the two-channel program (line 1254) the array either DA(n + 10) or DA(733), and in the five-channel program (line 1233) the array is DA(368)?
  19. Appendix 2: Program List for Fourier Analysis [81, Chapter 2]
    1. A2.1 Fourier analysis program list
    2. A2.2 Output of the fourier analysis program
  20. Appendix 3: Equipment for Tests
    1. A3.1 The 9 kVA three-phase transformer bank
    2. A3.2 The 4.5 kVA three-phase transformer bank #1
    3. A3.3 The 4.5 kVA Three-phase transformer bank #2
    4. A3.4 The 15 kVA three-phase transformer bank
    5. A3.5 Three-phase diode bridge
    6. A3.6 Half-controlled three-phase six-step inverter
    7. A3.7 Controlled three-phase resonant rectifier [12, chapter 2]
    8. A3.8 Controlled three-phase PWM inverter [12, chapter 2]
  21. Appendix 4: Measurement Error of Powers
    1. A4.1 Measurement error of powers
    2. A4.2 Nameplate data of measured transformers
  22. Index