5.3 Computation of initial conditions of the state variables
The initial conditions of the state variables for the model are computed systematically by solving the standard load-flow equations of the network, first, and then computing the other algebraic and state variables. The load-flow equations are part of the network equations, as shown in the succeeding text.
• Load-flow formulation:
The standard load flow is computed on the basis of constant PQ loads and has been the traditional mechanism for computing a proposed steady-state operating point.
The net power injected at a bus is defined as
Thus, the real and reactive power-balance equations at the buses 1, ...