O'Reilly logo

Release It!, 2nd Edition by Michael T. Nygard

Stay ahead with the world's most comprehensive technology and business learning platform.

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required

The Principle of Least Privilege

The principle of “least privilege” mandates that a process should have the lowest level of privilege needed to accomplish its task. This never includes running as root (UNIX/Linux) or administrator (Windows). Anything application services need to do, they should do as nonadministrative users.

I’ve seen Windows servers left logged in as administrator for weeks at a time—with remote desktop access—because some ancient piece of vendor software required it. (This particular package also was not able to run as a Windows service, so it was essentially just a Windows desktop application left running for a long time. That is not production ready!)

Software that runs as root is automatically a target. Any vulnerability ...

With Safari, you learn the way you learn best. Get unlimited access to videos, live online training, learning paths, books, interactive tutorials, and more.

Start Free Trial

No credit card required