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Release It!, 2nd Edition by Michael T. Nygard

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So Many Machines

Given the diversity of virtualization and deployment options we have now, words like server, service, and host have gotten muddy. For the rest of this chapter, the word machine will be a simple stand-in for configurable operating system instance. If you’re running on real metal, then it means the physical host. If you’re running a virtual machine, container, or unikernel, then that is the unit. When the distinctions matter, the text will call them out. Service will refer to a callable interface for others to use. A service is always made up of redundant copies of software running on multiple machines.

So where are we now? We have more ways to run software in production than ever. The net result is that our environments have ...

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