IP Addresses

IPv4 addresses are logical and are assigned by the network administrator, unlike ethernet addresses, which are physical addresses relating to a network component. An IPv4 address is 32 bits long, consisting of four octets, each of eight bits. IPv4 addresses are represented in decimal, using what is called dot notation; that is, each octet is separated by a dot (.). An example of an IPv4 address is 192.168.28.25.

An IPv4 address is used to identify a host on the network, through a combination of network number and host number within the network number. The preceding example represents host number 25 on network 192.168.28, but as you'll see in the following subsections, the portion of the IP address assigned to the network varies according ...

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