Recall from “Tables, Columns, and Rows” in Chapter 2 that column names must be unique within a table but can be reused in other tables. The tables authors and publishers in the sample database both contain a column named city, for example.
To identify an otherwise-ambiguous column uniquely in a query that involves multiple tables, use its qualified name. A qualified name is a table name followed by a dot and the name of the column in the table. Because tables must have different names within a database, a qualified name uniquely identifies a single column within the entire database.