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aPHR Associate Professional in Human Resources Certification All-in-One Exam Guide

Book Description

This highly effective self-study system offers complete coverage of every topic on the new aPHR exam

Take the Human Resources Certification Institute’s new aPHR exam with complete confidence using this integrated study guide. Written by a team of HR experts, aPHR Associate Professional in Human Resources Certification All-in-One Exam Guide features information about HR certifications in general, the aPHR exam in particular, and important U.S. laws and regulations. You’ll find learning objectives at the beginning of each chapter, exam tips, accurate practice questions, and in-depth explanations. Beyond fully preparing you for the challenging exam, the guide also serves as a valuable on-the-job reference.

Covers all exam topics, including:
• U.S. laws and regulations
• HR operations
• Recruitment and selection
• Compensation and benefits
• Human Resource development and retention
• Employee relations
• Health, safety, and security
• Early HR career level tasks


Electronic content includes:
• 200 practice exam questions
• Test engine that provides full-length practice exams and customized quizzes by topic

Table of Contents

  1. Cover
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Dedication
  5. About the Authors
  6. Contents at A Glance
  7. Contents
  8. Acknowledgments
  9. Introduction
  10. Part I The Human Resource Profession
    1. Chapter 1 Human Resource Certification
      1. Professional Certifications
      2. HR Certification Organizations
        1. The HR Certification Institute (HRCI)
        2. The Society for Human Resource Management (SHRM)
      3. Benefits of Certification
      4. The aPHR Exam
        1. The Significance of the HR Body of Knowledge
        2. The Test Development Process
        3. The Exam Experience
        4. The aPHR Registration Process
        5. Preparing for the Exam
        6. Exam Readiness
      5. Chapter Review
      6. Endnotes
    2. Chapter 2 U.S. Laws and Regulations
      1. When You Have ONE or More Employees
        1. The Clayton Act (1914)
        2. The Consumer Credit Protection Act (1968)
        3. The Copeland “Anti-Kickback” Act (1934)
        4. The Copyright Act (1976)
        5. The Davis-Bacon Act (1931)
        6. The Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (2010)
        7. The Economic Growth and Tax Relief Reconciliation Act (EGTRRA) (2001)
        8. The Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) (1986)
        9. The Employee Polygraph Protection Act (1988)
        10. The Employee Retirement Income Security Act (ERISA) (1974)
        11. The Equal Pay Act (an Amendment to the FLSA) (1963)
        12. The FAA Modernization and Reform Act (2012)
        13. The Fair and Accurate Credit Transactions Act (FACT) (2003)
        14. The Fair Credit Reporting Act (FCRA) (1970), as Amended in 2011
        15. The Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) (1938)
        16. The Foreign Corrupt Practices Act (FCPA) (1997)
        17. The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act (2009)
        18. The Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) (1996)
        19. The Immigration and Nationality Act (INA) (1952)
        20. The Immigration Reform and Control Act (IRCA) (1986)
        21. The IRS Intermediate Sanctions (2002)
        22. The Labor-Management Relations Act (LMRA; Taft-Hartley Act) (1947)
        23. The Labor-Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (Landrum-Griffin Act) (1959)
        24. The Mine Safety and Health Act (1977)
        25. The National Industrial Recovery Act (1933)
        26. The National Labor Relations Act (NLRA; Wagner Act) (1935)
        27. The Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act (2000)
        28. The Norris-LaGuardia Act (1932)
        29. The Occupational Safety and Health Act (OSHA) (1970)
        30. The Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (OBRA) (1993)
        31. The Pension Protection Act (PPA) (2006)
        32. The Personal Responsibility and Work Opportunity Reconciliation Act (1996)
        33. The Portal-to-Portal Act (1947)
        34. The Railway Labor Act (1926)
        35. The Rehabilitation Act (1973), as Amended in 1980
        36. The Retirement Equity Act (REA) (1984)
        37. The Revenue Act (1978)
        38. The Sarbanes-Oxley Act (SOX) (2002)
        39. The Securities and Exchange Act (1934)
        40. The Service Contract Act (1965)
        41. The Sherman Anti-Trust Act (1890)
        42. The Small Business Job Protection Act (1996)
        43. The Social Security Act (1935)
        44. The Tax Reform Act (1986)
        45. The Taxpayer Relief Act (1997)
        46. The Trademark Act (1946)
        47. The Unemployment Compensation Amendments (UCA) (1992)
        48. The Uniformed Services Employment and Reemployment Rights Act (USERRA) (1994)
        49. The Vietnam Era Veterans Readjustment Assistance Act (1974), as Amended by the Jobs for Veterans Act (JVA)
        50. The Wagner-Peyser Act (1933), as Amended by the Workforce Investment Act (WIA) (1988)
        51. The Walsh-Healey Act (Public Contracts Act) (1936)
        52. The Work Opportunity Tax Credit (WOTC) (1996)
        53. The Labor Management Reporting and Disclosure Act (1959)
        54. Whistle-Blowing
      2. For FIFTEEN or More Employees
        1. The Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) (1990), as Amended by the Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act (ADAAA) (2008)
        2. The Civil Rights Act (Title VII) (1964)
        3. The Civil Rights Act (1991)
        4. The Drug-Free Workplace Act (1998)
        5. The Equal Employment Opportunity Act (EEOA) (1972)
        6. The Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA) (2008)
        7. Guidelines on Discrimination Because of Sex (1980)
        8. The Lilly Ledbetter Fair Pay Act (2009)
        9. The Pregnancy Discrimination Act (1978)
        10. The Uniform Guidelines on Employee Selection Procedures (1978)
      3. For TWENTY or More Employees
        1. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) (1967), as Amended in 1978, 1986
        2. The American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) (2009)
        3. The Consolidated Omnibus Budget Reconciliation Act (COBRA) (1986)
        4. The Older Workers Benefit Protection Act (OWBPA) (1990)
      4. For FIFTY to ONE HUNDRED or More Employees
        1. Executive Order 11246: Affirmative Action (1965)
        2. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) (1993), Expanded 2008, 2010
        3. The Mental Health Parity Act (MHPA) (1996)
        4. The Mental Health Parity and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA) (2008)
        5. The National Defense Authorization Act (2008)
        6. The Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act (PPACA) (2010)
        7. Executive Order 13706: Paid Sick Leave for Federal Contractors (2015)
      5. For ONE HUNDRED or More Employees
        1. The Worker Adjustment and Retraining Notification (WARN) Act (1988)
      6. For Federal Government Employees
        1. The Civil Service Reform Act (1978)
        2. The Congressional Accountability Act (1995)
        3. The False Claims Act (1863)
        4. The Homeland Security Act (2002)
        5. The Privacy Act (1974)
        6. The USA PATRIOT Act (2001)
        7. Whistle-Blower Laws
      7. Employment Visas for Foreign Nationals
        1. E Nonimmigrant Visas
        2. H Visas
        3. L-1 Intracompany Transferee
        4. O-1 Alien of Extraordinary Ability in Arts, Science, Education, Business, Athletics
        5. P Visa Categories
        6. EB Employment-Based Visas
      8. Chapter Review
        1. Questions
        2. Answers
      9. Endnotes
  11. Part II aPHR Body of Knowledge Functional Areas
    1. Chapter 3 HR Operations
      1. Knowledge of
      2. Laws and Regulations
      3. HR Functions
        1. Employee Relations
        2. Records Management
        3. Compensation and Benefits
        4. Training and Development
        5. Health, Safety, and Security
        6. HR Research
      4. HR Generalists and Specialists
        1. HR Manager, Director, or Officer
        2. HR Support System
        3. HR Education and Certification
        4. HR Networking
      5. Organizational Accountability
        1. Multifunctional HR Department
        2. Sole HR Practitioner
        3. HR Call Center Operations
      6. Organizational Strategy
        1. Mission
        2. Vision
        3. Values
        4. Goals and Objectives
      7. Organizational Culture
        1. Tradition
        2. Unwritten Procedures
      8. Confidentiality
      9. Privacy
        1. Employee Records
        2. Company Data
        3. Personal Data
      10. Business Functions
        1. Finance and Accounting
        2. Operations
        3. Sales
        4. Marketing
      11. Business Reporting
      12. HR Policies and Procedures
        1. ADA HR Policy
        2. EEO HR Policy
        3. Progressive Discipline Policy
        4. Employee Handbooks and Policy Manuals
      13. HR Metrics
        1. Data Compilation Tools
        2. Data Collection Methods
        3. Surveys
        4. Interviews
        5. Observation
      14. Reporting and Presentation Techniques
        1. Histogram
        2. Bar Chart
      15. Impact of Technology on Human Resources
        1. Statutory Reporting Requirements
        2. Purpose and Function of Human Resources Information Systems (HRISs)
      16. Job Analysis Methods and Job Descriptions
        1. Legal Aspects of Job Analysis
        2. Job Analysis and the ADA
        3. Job Analysis and the FLSA
        4. Job Analysis and Affirmative Action
        5. Competency Analysis
        6. Job Descriptions and Job Specifications
        7. Job Description Components
        8. Why Use Job Descriptions
      17. FLSA Job Classifications
        1. Exempt
        2. Nonexempt
        3. Independent Contractors
      18. External HR Service Providers
        1. Recruiting Firms
        2. Staffing Agencies
        3. Benefits Brokers
      19. Communication Techniques
      20. Chapter Review
        1. Questions
        2. Answers
      21. Endnotes
    2. Chapter 4 Recruitment and Selection
      1. Knowledge of
      2. Laws and Regulations
        1. Federal Laws
      3. Applicant Databases
        1. Résumés vs. Job Applications
        2. Self-Identification
        3. Pre-employment Testing
      4. Recruitment Sources
        1. Internal
        2. External Recruitment Sources
      5. Recruitment Methods
        1. Advertising
      6. Alternative Staffing Practices
        1. Flexible Staffing
        2. Phased Retirement
        3. Contractor Payrolling
        4. Employee Leasing and Professional Employer Organizations (PEOs)
        5. Outsourcing and Managed Service Providers (MSPs)
        6. Temp-to-Lease Programs
        7. Rehires and Transfers
      7. Interviewing Techniques
        1. Types of Interviews
        2. Interviewing Skills and Techniques
        3. Interviewing Bias
      8. Post-Offer Activities
        1. Medical Examinations
        2. Background Checks
        3. Onboarding and Orientation
        4. Records Retention
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Questions
        2. Answers
      10. Endnotes
    3. Chapter 5 Compensation and Benefits
      1. Knowledge of
      2. Laws and Regulations
        1. Davis-Bacon Act
        2. Copeland Act
        3. Walsh-Healey Public Contracts Act
        4. Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA) (1938), as Amended
        5. Equal Pay Act (EPA)
        6. Pregnancy Discrimination Act (PDA)
        7. Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA), as Amended
        8. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
      3. Compensation
        1. Financial Inducements
        2. Direct Compensation (Cash)
        3. Nonfinancial Inducements
        4. Compensation Ethics
        5. Wage Surveys
        6. Job Evaluation
      4. Pricing and Pay Rates
        1. Pay Grades and Ranges
        2. Variations in Pay: Red and Green Circle Rates
      5. Base Pay Systems
        1. Single or Flat-Rate System
        2. Time-Based Step Rate Systems
        3. Performance-Based Merit Pay System
      6. Productivity-Based System
        1. Straight Piece-Rate System
        2. Differential Piece-Rate System
      7. Person-Based System
        1. Knowledge-Based Systems
        2. Skill-Based Systems
        3. Competency-Based Systems
      8. Financial Incentives
        1. Differential Pay
        2. Overtime Pay
        3. Hazard Pay
        4. Shift Pay
        5. On-Call Pay
        6. Callback Pay
        7. Geographic Differentials
        8. Weekend and Holiday Pay
      9. Team and Group Incentives
      10. Organization-Based Pay
        1. Profit Sharing
        2. Gainsharing
        3. Employee Benefits
        4. Paid Sick Leave
        5. Social Security
        6. Workers’ Compensation
        7. Unemployment Compensation
      11. Healthcare Benefits
        1. Marketplace Plans Under the Affordable Care Act (ACA)
        2. Managed Healthcare Plans
        3. Fee-for-Service Plans
        4. Preferred Provider Organization (PPO)
        5. Point of Service (POS)
        6. Health Maintenance Organization (HMO)
        7. Group Health Cooperative
        8. Consumer-Driven Healthcare
        9. Flexible Spending Account (FSA)
        10. Health Reimbursement Account (HRA)
        11. Health Savings Account (HSA)
        12. Employee Benefit Account Administration
        13. Retiree Benefits
        14. Benefits: Legal Compliance
        15. Benefits: Communication Requirements
        16. Developing Employee Self-Service (ESS) Technologies
      12. Chapter Review
        1. Questions
        2. Answers
      13. Endnotes
    4. Chapter 6 Human Resource Development and Retention
      1. Knowledge of
      2. Laws and Regulations
      3. Training Delivery Format
        1. Classroom
        2. E-learning
        3. On-the-Job Training (OJT)
      4. Techniques to Evaluate Training Programs
        1. Participant Surveys and Questionnaires
        2. Pre- and Post-Testing
        3. Measuring Behavior: After-Action Review
      5. Career Development Practices
        1. Succession Planning
        2. Career Pathing
        3. Dual-Ladder Careers
        4. Career Counseling
      6. Performance Appraisal Methods
        1. Category Rating
        2. Comparative Methods
        3. Narrative
        4. Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale (BARS)
        5. Management by Objectives (MBO)
      7. Performance Management Practices
        1. Organizational Values and Goals
        2. Performance Management Standards
        3. Employee Performance/Behaviors
      8. Employee Retention
        1. Methods for Employee Retention
      9. Chapter Review
        1. Questions
        2. Answers
      10. Endnotes
    5. Chapter 7 Employee Relations
      1. Knowledge of
      2. Laws and Regulations
        1. Federal Laws
        2. State Laws
        3. Federal Regulations
      3. Rights and Responsibilities
        1. Employer
        2. Employee
      4. Employee Feedback
        1. Employee Surveys
        2. Processes for Obtaining Feedback
      5. Workplace Behavior
        1. Attendance and Absenteeism
        2. Violation of Code of Conduct
        3. Employee Conflicts
        4. Workplace Harassment
      6. Complaints and Grievances
        1. Methods of Investigation
        2. Grievance Processing
      7. Progressive Discipline
        1. Identifying Steps of Discipline
        2. Documenting Progressive Discipline
        3. When to Escalate Corrective Action
        4. Termination
      8. Off-Boarding and Termination
        1. Payroll Processing—Final Paycheck
        2. Benefit Processing
        3. Documenting Reason for Separation
      9. Employee Relations Programs
        1. Recognition
        2. Special Events
        3. Diversity Programs
      10. Workforce Reduction and Restructuring
        1. Terminology
        2. Downsizing
        3. Mergers
        4. Outplacement Practices
      11. Chapter Review
        1. Questions
        2. Answers
      12. Endnotes
    6. Chapter 8 Health, Safety, and Security
      1. Knowledge of
      2. Laws and Regulations
        1. Organizational Safety and Health Act (OSHA)
        2. Bloodborne Pathogens
        3. Needlestick Safety and Prevention Act
        4. Mine Safety and Health Act (MSHA)
        5. Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act
        6. Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA)
        7. Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)
        8. Americans with Disabilities Act Amendments Act
        9. Genetic Information Nondiscrimination Act (GINA)
        10. Rehabilitation Act
        11. Pregnancy Discrimination Act
        12. Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA)
        13. Mental Health Parity Act and Addiction Equity Act (MHPAEA)
        14. Patient Protection and Affordable Care Act
      3. Risk Mitigation
        1. Injury and Illness Prevention Plan (IIPP)
        2. Health and Safety Monitoring
        3. Handling Workplace Violence
        4. Handling Emergencies
      4. Security Risks
        1. Data Security/Cyber-Crimes
        2. Inventory and Supply Security
        3. Equipment Security
        4. Theft Prevention/Loss Prevention
        5. Preventing Equipment Damage
        6. Securing Passwords
        7. Terrorism
      5. Report Processing
        1. Workers’ Compensation
        2. OSHA Compliance
        3. Employee Wellness Programs
      6. Chapter Review
        1. Questions
        2. Answers
      7. Endnotes
    7. Chapter 9 Early HR Career–Level Tasks
      1. Task #1—Access, Collect, and Provide Information and Data to Support HR-Related Decisions
      2. Task #2—Comply with All Applicable Laws and Regulations
      3. Task #3—Coordinate and Communicate with External Providers of HR Services
      4. Task #4—Maintain Employee Data in HRIS or System of Record
      5. Task #5—Maintain, File, and Process HR Forms
      6. Task #6—Prepare HR-Related Documents
      7. Task #7—Provide Internal Customer Service by Answering or Referring HR-Related Questions from Employees as the First Level of Support
      8. Task #8—Communicate Information About HR Policies and Procedures
      9. Task #9—Communicate the Organization’s Core Values, Vision, Mission, Culture, and Ethical Behaviors
      10. Task #10—Identify Risk in the Workplace
      11. Task #11—Minimize Risk by Conducting Audits
      12. Task #12—Document and Update Essential Job Functions with Support of Managers
      13. Task #13—Post Job Listings
      14. Task #14—Manage Applicant Databases
      15. Task #15—Screen Applicants for Managers to Interview
      16. Task #16—Answer Questions from Job Applicants
      17. Task #17—Coordinate Interview Logistics
      18. Task #18—Interview Job Candidates
      19. Task #19—Arrange for Tests and Assessments of Applicants
      20. Task #20—Coordinate the Employment Offer
      21. Task #21—Administer Post-Offer Employment Activities
      22. Task #22—Communicate Compensation and Benefits Programs and Systems
      23. Task #23—Coordinate Activities to Support Employee Benefits Programs
      24. Task #24—Coordinate Payroll-Related Information
      25. Task #25—Process Claims from Employees
      26. Task #26—Resolve Routine Employee Compensation and Benefits Issues
      27. Task #27—Conduct Orientation and On-boarding for New Hires, Rehires, and Transfers
      28. Task #28—Coordinate Training Sessions
      29. Task #29—Conduct Employee Training Programs
      30. Task #30—Coordinate the Logistics for Employee Relations Programs
      31. Task #31—Monitor Completion of Performance Reviews and Development Plans
      32. Chapter Review
      33. Endnote
  12. Part III Appendixes
    1. Appendix A List of Common HR Acronyms
    2. Appendix B Case Laws by Chapter
      1. Chapter 3—HR Operations
      2. Chapter 4—Recruitment and Selection
      3. Chapter 5—Compensation and Benefits
      4. Chapter 6—Human Resource Development and Retention
      5. Chapter 7—Employee Relations
      6. Chapter 8—Health, Safety, and Security
      7. Chapter 9—Early HR Career–Level Tasks
    3. Appendix C For Additional Study
    4. Appendix D About the Download
      1. System Requirements
      2. Installing and Running Total Tester
      3. About Total Tester
      4. Technical Support
  13. Glossary
  14. Index