13 Systolic Array for Stereo Matching

In this chapter, following the single processor designed in Chapter 12, we design a systolic machine for stereo matching. Although the two machines are structurally different, they are both based on the line processing method (i.e. LVSIM) introduced in Chapter 4, which processes a frame line by line (or strip by strip), using small internal buffers. The systolic array introduced in Chapter 4 is a linear array consisting of many identical processors connected in a neighborhood fashion. This type of architecture is especially effective for VLSI implementation because it has many advantages, such as a regular structure, identical processors, neighborhood connections, and simple control.

This chapter first deals with the search space, because the problem is to find the path that incurs the least cost. We derive a systolic array, which is an efficient machine for such problems, in a systematic manner, following (Jeong 1984; Kung and Leiserson 1980; Leiserson and Saxe 1991). Using huge broadcasting, we spatially and temporally transform a simple circuit that matches the left and right image streams for disparity computation into the form of systolic arrays. The result is eight fundamental circuits that can be classified into two types: forward backward (FB), in which the two signal streams flow in opposite directions, and backward backward (BB), in which the two signals flow in the same direction. The multitude of circuits arises from the dualism ...

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