The last decade has seen a significant shift in our understanding of digital tools. Not only do we now take them for granted, we are becoming the cyborg creatures much-prophesied in 1990s millennial theory but without the neural implants and virtual reality that so alienated mainstream audiences.

Instead, we put smartphones in our pockets and walk out into the world armed with search engines, Wikipedia, social networking services, and advanced mapping services. Without giving it much thought, we have turned into augmented beings existing in a world that is simultaneously real and virtual.

This revolution would be impossible without a new understanding of software as cultural artifact. Where we once saw text processors as literal typewriter ...

Get Generative Art now with the O’Reilly learning platform.

O’Reilly members experience live online training, plus books, videos, and digital content from nearly 200 publishers.