Electrode array design and fabrication for implantable systems
P. Grabiec, K. Domanski and D. Szmigiel, Instytut Technologii Elektronowej (ITE), Poland
D. Hodgins, European Technology for Business Ltd, UK
Many medical implants use electrodes to stimulate nerves or muscles, or sense their activity. As more advanced implants such as functional electrical stimulators, cochlear implants and retinal prostheses are developed, requirements for implantable electrodes have become more demanding. Whereas implants such as pacemakers can be made using simple, large, noble-metal electrodes, newer systems such as retinal implants require a complex array of electrodes within a very small enclosure. This necessitates micro-fabrication ...