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Technical Drawing with Engineering Graphics, Fifteenth Edition

Book Description

This full-color text offers a clear, complete introduction and detailed reference for creating 3D models and 2D documentation drawings. Building on its reputation as a trusted reference, this edition expands on the role that 3D CAD databases now play in design and documentation. Superbly integrated illustrations, text, step-by-step instructions, and navigation make it easier than ever to master key skills and knowledge. Throughout, the authors demonstrate 3D and 2D drawing skills and CAD usage in real-world work practice in today’s leading disciplines. They combine strong technical detail, real-world examples, and current standards, materials, industries, and processes–all in a format that is efficient, colorful, and visual.

Features:

  • Splash Spread: Appealing chapter opener provides contextand motivation.
  • References and Web Links: Useful weblinks and standardsprovided upfront in each chapter.
  • Understanding Section: Foundational introductions, tabbedfor easy navigation, outline each topic’s importance, use,visualization tips, and theory.
  • Detail Section: Detailed, well-tested explanations of drawing techniques, variations, and examples–organized intoquick-read sections, numbered for easy reference.
  • CAD at Work Section: Breakout pages offer tips on generating drawings from 2D or 3D models.
  • Portfolio Section: Examples of finished drawings show how techniques are applied in the real world.
  • Key Words: Italicized on first reference, summarized after each chapter.
  • Chapter: Summaries and Review Questions: Efficiently reinforce learning.
  • Exercises: Outstanding problem sets with updated exercises, including parts, assembly drawings from CAD models, sketching problems, and orthographic projections.

Table of Contents

  1. About This eBook
  2. Title Page
  3. Copyright Page
  4. Contents
  5. About this Book
    1. Updated Content
    2. Teaching/Learning Features
    3. Chapter Opener
    4. “Spotlight” Sections
    5. “Foundations” Section
    6. “Detail” Section
    7. “Step by Step” Activities
    8. “CAD at Work”
    9. “Industry Case”
    10. “Portfolio”
    11. Solid Model Visualization Art
    12. Illustrations
    13. Chapter Review
    14. Chapter Exercises
  6. Preface
    1. The Fifteenth Edition
    2. Online Resources
    3. Acknowledgments
  7. Chapter One the Worldwide Language for Graphic Design
    1. Understanding the Role of Technical Drawings
      1. The Design Process
      2. Concurrent Engineering
      3. Computer-Aided Design and Product Development
      4. Designing Quality into Products
      5. The Digital Database
    2. 1.1 Graphics Tools in Action
      1. Design Phase: Problem Identification
      2. Design Phase: Ideation
      3. Design Phase: Decision Process/Design Selection
      4. Design Phase: Refinement
      5. Design Phase: Analysis
      6. Design Phase: Decision Process/Design Selection
      7. Design Phase: Implementation
      8. Design Phase: Documentation
    3. 1.2 Rapid Prototyping
    4. 1.3 Drafting Standards
    5. 1.4 Creativity Techniques
      1. Examine Manufactured Products
      2. Study the Natural World
      3. Watch the Web
      4. Research Patent Drawings
      5. Design Groups
    6. 1.5 Product Definition
    7. 1.6 Showing the Design Process in a Portfolio
    8. Key Words
    9. Chapter Summary
    10. Review Questions
    11. Chapter Exercises
    12. Reverse Engineering Projects
      1. Can Opener Project
      2. Locking Pliers Project
  8. Chapter Two Layouts and Lettering
    1. Understanding Projections
      1. Types of Projections
      2. Drawing Vocabulary
    2. 2.1 Alphabet of Lines
    3. 2.2 Freehand Lines
    4. 2.3 Measurement Systems
      1. U.S. Customary Units
      2. The Metric System
    5. 2.4 Drawing Scale
    6. 2.5 Specifying the Scale On a Drawing
    7. 2.6 Lettering
    8. 2.7 Lettering Standards
    9. 2.8 Using Guidelines for Hand Lettering
    10. 2.9 Vertical and Inclined Letters and Numerals
    11. 2.10 Fractions
    12. 2.11 Spacing of Letters and Words
    13. 2.12 Lettering for Titles
    14. 2.13 Drawing Pencils
    15. 2.14 Templates
    16. 2.15 CAD Tools
    17. 2.16 Sketching and Drawing Media
    18. 2.17 Standard Sheets
    19. 2.18 Standard Layout Elements
      1. Margins and Borders
      2. Zones
      3. Typical Letter Sizes
      4. Title Block
    20. 2.19 Layouts
    21. 2.20 Planning Your Drawing or Sketch
      1. Show Details Clearly
    22. Key Words
    23. Chapter Summary
    24. Review Questions
    25. Chapter Exercises
      1. Drawing Exercises
      2. Lettering Exercises
  9. Chapter Three Visualization and Sketching
    1. Understanding Solid Objects
      1. Types of Solids
    2. Understanding Sketching Techniques
      1. Analyzing Complex Objects
      2. Viewpoint
      3. Shading
      4. Edges and Vertices
      5. Points and Lines
      6. Angles
      7. Drawings and Sketches
      8. Freehand Sketching
    3. 3.1 Technique of Lines
      1. Lineweights
    4. 3.2 Sketching Straight Lines
      1. Blocking in a Freehand Drawing
    5. 3.3 Sketching Circles, Arcs, and Ellipses
      1. Circles
      2. Sketching Arcs
      3. Sketching Ellipses
    6. 3.4 Maintaining Proportions
    7. 3.5 One-View Drawings
    8. 3.6 Pictorial Sketching
    9. 3.7 Projection Methods
    10. 3.8 Axonometric Projection
      1. Axonometric Projections and 3D Models
    11. 3.9 Isometric Projection
      1. Isometric Axes
      2. Nonisometric Lines
      3. Isometric Scales
    12. 3.10 Isometric Drawings
    13. 3.11 Making an Isometric Drawing
    14. 3.12 Offset Location Measurements
      1. Isometric Drawings of Inclined Surfaces
    15. 3.13 Hidden Lines and Centerlines
    16. 3.14 Angles in Isometric
    17. 3.15 Irregular Objects
    18. 3.16 Curves in Isometric
    19. 3.17 True Ellipses in Isometric
    20. 3.18 Orienting Ellipses in Isometric Drawings
    21. 3.19 Drawing Isometric Cylinders
    22. 3.20 Screw Threads in Isometric
    23. 3.21 Arcs in Isometric
    24. 3.22 Spheres in Isometric
    25. 3.23 Oblique Sketches
      1. Appearance of Oblique Drawings
      2. Choosing the Front Surface
      3. Angle of Receding Lines
    26. 3.24 Length of Receding Lines
      1. Cavalier Projection
      2. Cabinet Projection
    27. 3.25 Choice of Position in Oblique Drawings
    28. 3.26 Ellipses for Oblique Drawings
    29. 3.27 Angles in Oblique Projection
    30. 3.28 Sketching Assemblies
    31. 3.29 Sketching Perspectives
      1. The Three Types of Perspective
      2. Bird’s-Eye View Versus Worm’s-Eye View
    32. 3.30 Curves and Circles in Perspective
    33. 3.31 Shading
    34. 3.32 Computer Graphics
    35. 3.33 Drawing on Drawing
    36. Key Words
    37. Chapter Summary
    38. Review Questions
    39. Sketching Exercises
  10. Chapter Four Geometry for Modeling and Design
    1. Coordinates for 3D CAD Modeling
      1. Specifying Location
    2. Geometric Entities
      1. Points
      2. Lines
      3. Planes
      4. Circles
      5. Arcs
    3. 4.1 Manually Bisecting a Line or Circular Arc
    4. 4.2 Drawing Tangents to Two Circles
    5. 4.3 Drawing an Arc Tangent to a Line or Arc and Through a Point
    6. 4.4 Bisecting an Angle
    7. 4.5 Drawing a Line Through a Point and Parallel to a Line
    8. 4.6 Drawing a Triangle With Sides Given
    9. 4.7 Drawing a Right Triangle With Hypotenuse and One Side Given
    10. 4.8 Laying Out an Angle
    11. 4.9 Drawing an Equilateral Triangle
    12. 4.10 Polygons
    13. 4.11 Drawing a Regular Pentagon
    14. 4.12 Drawing a Hexagon
    15. 4.13 Ellipses
    16. 4.14 Spline Curves
    17. 4.15 Geometric Relationships
    18. 4.16 Solid Primitives
      1. Making Complex Shapes with Boolean Operations
    19. 4.17 Recognizing Symmetry
      1. Right- and Left-Hand Parts
      2. Parting-Line Symmetry
    20. 4.18 Extruded Forms
      1. Swept Shapes
    21. 4.19 Revolved Forms
    22. 4.20 Irregular Surfaces
    23. 4.21 User Coordinate Systems
    24. 4.22 Transformations
      1. Geometric Transformations
      2. Viewing Transformations
    25. Key Words
    26. Chapter Summary
    27. Skills Summary
    28. Review Questions
    29. Chapter Exercises
  11. Chapter Five Modeling and Design
    1. Refinement and Modeling
    2. Kinds of Models
      1. Descriptive Models
      2. Analytical Models
    3. 5.1 2D Models
      1. Paper Drawings
      2. 2D CAD Models
      3. 2D Constraint-Based Modeling
    4. 5.2 3D Models
      1. Physical Models
      2. 3D CAD Models
    5. 5.3 Types of 3D Models
      1. Wireframe Models
      2. Surface Models
      3. Solid Models
    6. 5.4 Constraint-Based Modeling
    7. 5.5 Constraints Define the Geometry
      1. Feature-Based Modeling
    8. 5.6 Planning Parts for Design Flexibility
    9. 5.7 Sketch Constraints
      1. Overconstrained Sketches
      2. Underconstrained Sketches
      3. Applying Constraints
      4. Setting the Base Point
    10. 5.8 The Base Feature
      1. Adding Features to the Model
      2. Parent-Child Relationships
      3. Datum Planes and Surfaces
    11. 5.9 Editing the Model
      1. Standard Features
      2. Working with Built-in Features
      3. Complex Shapes
    12. 5.10 Constraint-Based Modeling Modes
      1. Assemblies
      2. Drawings from the Model
    13. 5.11 Choosing the Right Modeling Method
    14. Key Words
    15. Chapter Summary
    16. Review Questions
    17. Chapter Exercises
  12. Chapter Six Orthographic Projection
    1. Understanding Projections
      1. Views of Objects
      2. The Six Standard Views
      3. Principal Dimensions
      4. Projection Method
      5. The Glass Box
      6. Spacing between Views
      7. Transferring Depth Dimensions
      8. Measuring from a Reference Surface
      9. Necessary Views
      10. Orientation of the Front View
      11. First- and Third-Angle Projection
      12. Third-Angle Projection
      13. Alternative Arrangements for Third-Angle Projection
      14. First-Angle Projection
      15. Projection System Drawing Symbol
      16. Hidden Lines
      17. Centerlines
    2. 6.1 Hidden Line Technique
    3. 6.2 Precedence of Lines
    4. 6.3 Centerlines
    5. 6.4 Laying Out a Drawing
    6. 6.5 Developing Views From 3D Models
      1. Placing the Views
      2. Isometric Views
    7. 6.6 Visualization
      1. Surfaces, Edges, and Corners
    8. 6.7 Views of Surfaces
    9. 6.8 Normal Surfaces
    10. 6.9 Inclined Surfaces
    11. 6.10 Oblique Surfaces
    12. 6.11 Edges
    13. 6.12 Normal Edges
    14. 6.13 Inclined Edges
    15. 6.14 Oblique Edges
    16. 6.15 Parallel Edges
    17. 6.16 Angles
    18. 6.17 Vertices
    19. 6.18 Interpreting Points
    20. 6.19 Interpreting Lines
    21. 6.20 Similar Shapes of Surfaces
    22. 6.21 Interpreting Views
    23. 6.22 Models
      1. Rules for Visualizing from a Drawing: Putting it All Together
    24. 6.23 Projecting a Third View
    25. 6.24 Becoming a 3D Visualizer
    26. Key Words
    27. Chapter Summary
    28. Review Questions
    29. Chapter Exercises
  13. Chapter Seven 2D Drawing Representation
    1. Practices for 2D Documentation Drawings
      1. Common Manufactured Features
      2. Conventional Representations
      3. Intersections and Tangencies
      4. Removed Views
    2. 7.1 Visualizing and Drawing Complex Cylindrical Shapes
    3. 7.2 Cylinders When Sliced
    4. 7.3 Cylinders and Ellipses
    5. 7.4 Intersections and Tangencies
      1. Intersections of Cylinders
    6. 7.5 Fillets and Rounds
    7. 7.6 Runouts
    8. 7.7 Conventional Edges
    9. 7.8 Necessary Views
    10. 7.9 Partial Views
      1. Showing Enlarged Details
      2. Conventional Breaks
    11. 7.10 Alignment of Views
    12. 7.11 Removed Views
    13. 7.12 Right-Hand and Left-Hand Parts
    14. 7.13 Revolution Conventions
      1. Common Hole Features Shown in Orthographic Views
      2. Common Features Shown in Orthographic Views
    15. Key Words
    16. Chapter Summary
    17. Review Questions
    18. Chapter Exercises
  14. Chapter Eight Section Views
    1. Understanding Sections
      1. Sections of Single Parts
      2. Full Sections
      3. The Cutting Plane
      4. Lines behind the Cutting Plane
    2. 8.1 Placement of Section Views
    3. 8.2 Labeling Cutting Planes
    4. 8.3 Line Precedence
    5. 8.4 Rules for Lines in Section Views
    6. 8.5 Cutting-Plane Line Style
      1. Visualizing Cutting-Plane Direction
    7. 8.6 Section-Lining Technique
      1. Section Lining Large Areas
      2. Section-Lining Symbols
      3. Section Lining in CAD
    8. 8.7 Half Sections
    9. 8.8 Broken Out Sections
    10. 8.9 Revolved Sections
    11. 8.10 Removed Sections
    12. 8.11 Offset Sections
    13. 8.12 Ribs in Section
    14. 8.13 Aligned Sections
    15. 8.14 Partial Views
    16. 8.15 Intersections in Sections
    17. 8.16 Conventional Breaks and Sections
    18. 8.17 Assembly Sections
    19. Key Words
    20. Chapter Summary
    21. Review Questions
    22. Chapter Exercises
  15. Chapter Nine Auxiliary Views
    1. Understanding Auxiliary Views
      1. The Auxiliary Plane
      2. Primary Auxiliary Views
      3. Visualizing an Auxiliary View as a Revolved Drawing
      4. Classification of Auxiliary Views
      5. Successive Auxiliary Views
      6. Secondary Auxiliary Views
      7. Reference Planes
    2. 9.1 Using Triangles to Sketch Auxiliary Views
    3. 9.2 Using Grid Paper to Sketch Auxiliary Views
    4. 9.3 Using CAD to Create Auxiliary Views
    5. 9.4 Circles and Ellipses in Auxiliary Views
    6. 9.5 Hidden Lines in Auxiliary Views
    7. 9.6 Partial Auxiliary Views
    8. 9.7 Half Auxiliary Views
    9. 9.8 Reverse Construction
    10. 9.9 Auxiliary Sections
    11. 9.10 Viewing-Plane Lines and Arrows
    12. 9.11 Uses of Auxiliary Views
    13. 9.12 True Length of a Line
    14. 9.13 Point View of a Line
      1. Showing the Point View of a Line
    15. 9.14 Edge View of a Plane
      1. Showing the Edge View of a Plane
    16. 9.15 True Size of an Oblique Surface
      1. Showing the True Size and Shape of an Oblique Surface
    17. 9.16 Dihedral Angles
    18. Understanding Developments and Intersections
      1. Surface Terminology
      2. Developable Surfaces
      3. Principles of Intersections
    19. 9.17 Developments
      1. Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Prism and Developing the Prism
      2. Finding the Intersection of a Plane and a Cylinder and Developing the Cylinder
    20. 9.18 Hems and Joints for Sheet Metal and Other Materials
    21. 9.19 More Examples of Developments and Intersections
      1. Developing a Plane and an Oblique Prism
      2. Developing a Plane and an Oblique Cylinder
      3. Developing a Plane and a Pyramid
      4. Developing a Plane and a Cone
      5. Developing a Hood and Flue
    22. 9.20 Transition PIECES
    23. 9.21 Triangulation
    24. 9.22 Developing a Transition Piece Connecting Rectangular Pipes on the Same Axis
    25. 9.23 Developing a Plane and a Sphere
    26. 9.24 Revolution
      1. Axis of Revolution
      2. Creating a Revolved Drawing
    27. 9.25 Primary and Successive Revolutions
    28. 9.26 True Length of a Line: Revolution Method
    29. Key Words
    30. Chapter Summary
    31. Review Questions
    32. Chapter Exercises
      1. Design Project
      2. Auxiliary View Exercises
      3. Revolution Exercises
      4. Development Exercises
  16. Chapter Ten Modeling for Manufacture and Assembly
    1. Design for Manufacture, Assembly, Disassembly, and Service
    2. 10.1 Assembly Models
      1. Constraint-Based Assemblies
      2. Choosing the Parent Part
      3. Assembly Constraints
      4. Managing Assembly Files
    3. 10.2 Assemblies and Design
      1. Layout Drawings
      2. Assembling to a Skeleton
      3. Global Parameters
      4. Seed Parts
      5. Constraint-Based Drawing Elements
    4. 10.3 Assemblies and Simulation
    5. 10.4 Parts for Assemblies
      1. Standard Parts
      2. Fastener Libraries
    6. 10.5 Using Your Model to Check Fits
      1. Interference Checking
      2. Accessibility Checking
    7. 10.6 Manufacturing Processes
      1. Designing Plastic Parts
      2. Cast Parts
      3. Modeling Machined Parts
      4. Modeling Sheet Metal Parts
      5. Other Methods of Production
    8. 10.7 Dos and Don’ts of Practical Design
      1. Casting Design
      2. Practical Considerations
    9. 10.8 Manufacturing Materials
      1. Material Assignment in Models
    10. 10.9 Appearance, Service Life, and Recycling
    11. 10.10 Dimensional Accuracy and Surface Finish
    12. 10.11 Net-Shape Manufacturing
    13. 10.12 Computer-Integrated Manufacturing
    14. 10.13 Shared Manufacturing
    15. 10.14 Manufacturing Methods and the Drawing
    16. 10.15 Modeling for Testing and Refinement
    17. 10.16 Determining Mass Properties
      1. Understanding Mass Property Calculations
    18. 10.17 Exporting Data from the Database
      1. File Formats
      2. Common Formats for Export
      3. Vector versus Raster Data
    19. 10.18 Downstream Applications
      1. Spreadsheets
      2. Equation Solvers
      3. Finite Element Analysis
      4. Simulation Software
      5. Human Factors
      6. Integrated Modeling and Design Software
    20. 10.19 PROTOTYPING YOUR DESIGN
      1. Rapid Prototyping
      2. Translating the Model
      3. Rapid Prototyping Systems
      4. Rapid Tooling
    21. Key Words
    22. Chapter Summary
    23. Review Questions
    24. Chapter Exercises
      1. Mass Properties Exercises
  17. Chapter Eleven Dimensioning
    1. Understanding Dimensioning
      1. Three Aspects of Good Dimensioning
      2. Tolerance
      3. Geometric Breakdown
    2. 11.1 Lines Used in Dimensioning
    3. 11.2 Using Dimension and Extension Lines
    4. 11.3 Arrowheads
    5. 11.4 Leaders
    6. 11.5 Drawing Scale and Dimensioning
    7. 11.6 Direction of Dimension Values and Notes
    8. 11.7 Dimension Units
    9. 11.8 Millimeter Values
    10. 11.9 Decimal-Inch Values
    11. 11.10 Rules for Dimension Values
    12. 11.11 Rules for Rounding Decimal Dimension Values
    13. 11.12 Dual Dimensioning
    14. 11.13 Combination Units
    15. 11.14 Dimensioning Symbols
    16. 11.15 Placing and Showing Dimensions Legibly
      1. Rules for Placing Dimensions Properly
    17. 11.16 Superfluous Dimensions
    18. 11.17 Dimensioning Angles
    19. 11.18 Dimensioning Arcs
    20. 11.19 Fillets and Rounds
    21. 11.20 Size Dimensioning: Prisms
    22. 11.21 Size Dimensioning: Cylinders
    23. 11.22 Size Dimensioning: Holes
    24. 11.23 Applying Standard Dimensioning Symbols
    25. 11.24 Dimensioning Counterbores and Spotfaces with Fillets
    26. 11.25 Dimensioning Triangular Prisms, Pyramids, and Cones
    27. 11.26 Dimensioning Curves
    28. 11.27 Dimensioning Curved Surfaces
    29. 11.28 Dimensioning Rounded-End Shapes
    30. 11.29 Dimensioning Threads
    31. 11.30 Dimensioning Tapers
    32. 11.31 Dimensioning Chamfers
    33. 11.32 Shaft Centers
    34. 11.33 Dimensioning Keyways
    35. 11.34 Dimensioning Knurls
    36. 11.35 Finish Marks
    37. 11.36 Surface Roughness
      1. Applications of Surface Roughness Symbols
    38. 11.37 Location Dimensions
    39. 11.38 Mating Dimensions
    40. 11.39 Coordinate Dimensioning
    41. 11.40 Tabular Dimensions
    42. 11.41 Dimensioning for Numerically-Controlled Machining
    43. 11.42 Machine, Pattern, and Forging Dimensions
    44. 11.43 Sheet Metal Bends
    45. 11.44 Notes
    46. 11.45 Standards
    47. 11.46 Dos and Don’ts of Dimensioning
    48. Key Words
    49. Chapter Summary
    50. Review Questions
    51. Chapter Exercises
  18. Chapter Twelve Tolerancing
    1. Understanding Tolerance
      1. Tolerance
      2. Quality Control
      3. Definitions for Size Designation
      4. Variations in Form
      5. Tolerance Envelope
      6. Implied Right Angles
      7. Fits between Mating Parts
      8. Selective Assembly
      9. Hole System
      10. Shaft System
    2. 12.1 Specifying Tolerances
    3. 12.2 General Tolerance Notes
    4. 12.3 Limit Tolerances
      1. Single-Limit Dimensioning
    5. 12.4 Plus-Or-Minus Tolerances
    6. 12.5 Tolerance Stacking
      1. Chained or Continuous Dimensioning
      2. Baseline Dimensioning
    7. 12.6 Using American National Standard Limits and Fit Tables
    8. 12.7 Tolerances and Machining Processes
    9. 12.8 Metric System of Tolerances and Fits
    10. 12.9 Preferred Sizes
    11. 12.10 Preferred Fits
    12. 12.11 Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
    13. 12.12 Symbols for Tolerances of Position and Form
    14. 12.13 Datum Features
      1. Datum Features Versus Datum Feature Simulator
      2. Datum Reference Frame
      3. Datum Targets
    15. 12.14 Positional Tolerances
    16. 12.15 Maximum Material Condition
    17. 12.16 Tolerances of Angles
    18. 12.17 Form Tolerances for Single Features
    19. 12.18 Orientations for Related Features
    20. 12.19 Using Geometric Dimensioning and Tolerancing
    21. 12.20 Tolerances and Digital Product Definition
    22. 12.21 Computer Graphics
    23. Key Words
    24. Chapter Summary
    25. Review Questions
    26. Chapter Exercises
      1. Design Project
      2. Tolerancing Projects
  19. Chapter Thirteen Threads, Fasteners, and Springs
    1. Understanding Threads and Fasteners
      1. Screw Thread Terms
      2. Screw Thread Forms
      3. Thread Pitch
      4. Thread Series
      5. Right-Hand and Left-Hand Threads
      6. Single and Multiple Threads
      7. American National Thread Fits
      8. Metric and Unified Thread Fits
      9. Three Methods for Drawing Thread
    2. 13.1 Thread Notes
      1. Acme Thread Notes
    3. 13.2 External Thread Symbols
    4. 13.3 Internal Thread Symbols
    5. 13.4 Detailed Representation: Metric, Unified, and American National Threads
      1. Detailed Internal Square Thread
      2. Detailed External Square Thread
    6. 13.5 Threads in Assembly
    7. 13.6 Modeling Thread
    8. 13.7 American National Standard Pipe Threads
    9. 13.8 Use of Phantom Lines
    10. 13.9 Tapped Holes
    11. 13.10 Bolts, Studs, and Screws
    12. 13.11 Standard Bolts and Nuts
    13. 13.12 Drawing Standard Bolts
    14. 13.13 Specifications for Bolts and Nuts
    15. 13.14 Locknuts and Locking Devices
    16. 13.15 Standard Cap Screws
    17. 13.16 Standard Machine Screws
    18. 13.17 Standard Set Screws
    19. 13.18 American National Standard Wood Screws
    20. 13.19 Miscellaneous Fasteners
    21. 13.20 Keys
    22. 13.21 Machine Pins
    23. 13.22 Rivets
      1. Riveted Joints
      2. Rivet Symbols
      3. Small Rivets
      4. Blind Rivets
    24. 13.23 Springs
      1. Helical Springs
    25. 13.24 Drawing Helical Springs
    26. 13.25 Modeling Springs
    27. Key Words
    28. Chapter Summary
    29. Review Questions
    30. Chapter Exercises
      1. Design Project
      2. Thread and Fastener Projects
  20. Chapter Fourteen Working Drawings
    1. Working Drawings or Construction Drawings
      1. Assembly Drawings
      2. Detail Drawings or Piece Part Drawings
    2. 14.1 Subassemblies
    3. 14.2 Identification
      1. Multidetail Drawings
    4. 14.3 PARTS LISTS
    5. 14.4 Assembly Sections
    6. 14.5 Working Drawing Assembly
    7. 14.6 Installation Assemblies
    8. 14.7 Check Assemblies
    9. 14.8 Working Drawing Formats
      1. Number of Details per Sheet
      2. Digital Drawing Transmittal
      3. Title and Record Strips
    10. 14.9 Drawing Numbers
    11. 14.10 Zoning
    12. 14.11 Checking Drawings
    13. 14.12 Drawing Revisions
    14. 14.13 Simplifying Drawings
    15. 14.14 Patent Drawings
    16. Key Words
    17. Chapter Summary
    18. Review Questions
    19. Chapter Exercises
      1. Design Project
      2. Working Drawing Exercises
  21. Chapter Fifteen Drawing Control and Data Management
    1. Documentation and the Design Database
    2. 15.1 Requirements for Engineering Documentation
    3. 15.2 Drawing Control Methods
      1. Drawing Approval and Release
      2. Change Orders
      3. Revision Block
      4. A Drawing as a Snapshot in Time
    4. 15.3 Good Practices for Electronic Drawing Storage
      1. Storing Electronic Files
      2. Organized Directory Structures
      3. File Naming Conventions
    5. 15.4 Drawing Standards
    6. 15.5 Permission and Ownership
    7. 15.6 Backing Up Drawing Files
    8. 15.7 Storage Media
    9. 15.8 Using the 3D Design Database in Concurrent Engineering
    10. 15.9 Quality Management
      1. ISO 9000/9001
    11. 15.10 Product Data Management
      1. Organized by Product
      2. A Relational Database
    12. 15.11 Managing Work Flow
      1. Archiving Work History
      2. Individual Productivity
    13. 15.12 Data Management and the Web
      1. CAD Files on the Web
    14. Key Words
    15. Chapter Summary
    16. Review Questions
    17. Chapter Exercises
  22. Chapter Sixteen Gears and Cams
    1. Understanding Gears
      1. Using Gears to Transmit Power
      2. Spur Gear Definitions and Formulas
    2. 16.1 Constructing a Base Circle
    3. 16.2 The Involute Tooth Shape
    4. 16.3 Approximate Involute Using Circular Arcs
    5. 16.4 Spacing Gear Teeth
    6. 16.5 Rack Teeth
    7. 16.6 Working Drawings of Spur Gears
    8. 16.7 Spur Gear Design
    9. 16.8 Worm Gears
    10. 16.9 Working Drawings of Worm Gears
    11. 16.10 Bevel Gears
    12. 16.11 Bevel Gear Definitions and Formulas
    13. 16.12 Working Drawings of Bevel Gears
    14. 16.13 Cams
    15. 16.14 Displacement Diagrams
    16. 16.15 Cam Profiles
    17. 16.16 Offset and Pivoted Cam Followers
    18. 16.17 Cylindrical Cams
    19. 16.18 Other Drive Devices
    20. Key Words
    21. Chapter Summary
    22. Review Questions
    23. Chapter Exercises
  23. Chapter Seventeen Electronic Diagrams
    1. Understanding Electronic Diagrams
      1. Standard Symbols
      2. CAD Symbol Libraries
      3. Types of Electronic Diagrams
    2. 17.1 Drawing Size, Format, and Title
    3. 17.2 Line Conventions and Lettering
    4. 17.3 Standard Symbols for Electronic Diagrams
    5. 17.4 Abbreviations
    6. 17.5 Grouping Parts
    7. 17.6 Arrangement of Electrical/Electronic Symbols
    8. 17.7 Connections and Crossovers
    9. 17.8 Interrupted Paths
    10. 17.9 Terminals
    11. 17.10 Color Coding
    12. 17.11 Division of Parts
    13. 17.12 Electron Tube PIN Identification
    14. 17.13 Reference Designations
    15. 17.14 Numerical Values
    16. 17.15 Functional Identification and Other Information
    17. 17.16 Integrated Circuits
    18. 17.17 Printed Circuits
    19. 17.18 Computer Graphics
    20. Key Words
    21. Chapter Summary
    22. Review Questions
    23. Chapter Exercises
  24. Chapter Eighteen Structural Drawing
    1. Structural Drawings
    2. 18.1 Wood Construction
      1. Nominal Sizes for Wood Products
      2. Symbols for Finished Surfaces on Wood Products
      3. Wood Joints
      4. Connector Designs
      5. Metal Ring Connectors
      6. Straps and Plates
    3. 18.2 Structural Steel
      1. Piece Marks
      2. Erection Plans
    4. 18.3 Structural Steel Shapes
    5. 18.4 Specifications
    6. 18.5 Welded and Bolted Connections
    7. 18.6 Riveted Connections
    8. 18.7 Frame Beam Connections
    9. 18.8 Welding
    10. 18.9 High-Strength Bolting for Structural Joints
    11. 18.10 Accuracy of Dimensions
    12. 18.11 Concrete Construction
    13. 18.12 Reinforced Concrete Drawings
    14. 18.13 Structural Clay Products
    15. 18.14 Stone Construction
    16. Key Words
    17. Chapter Summary
    18. Review Questions
    19. Chapter Exercises
  25. Chapter Nineteen Landform Drawings
    1. Understanding Landform Drawings
      1. Definitions
    2. Getting Information for Maps
    3. 19.1 Symbols
    4. 19.2 Bearings
    5. 19.3 Elevation
    6. 19.4 Contours
      1. Interpolating Elevation Data
      2. 3D Terrain Models
    7. 19.5 City Maps
      1. Subdivision Plats
      2. Uses for Subdivision Plats
      3. Landscape Drawings
    8. 19.6 Structure Location Plans
    9. 19.7 Highway Plans
    10. Key Words
    11. Chapter Summary
    12. Review Questions
    13. Chapter Exercises
  26. Chapter Twenty Piping Drawings
    1. Understanding Piping Drawings
      1. Standard Symbols
      2. Types of Drawings
      3. Dimensioning Piping Drawings
    2. 20.1 Steel and Wrought Iron Pipe
    3. 20.2 Cast Iron Pipe
    4. 20.3 Seamless Brass and Copper Pipe
    5. 20.4 Copper Tubing
    6. 20.5 Plastic and Specialty Pipes
    7. 20.6 Pipe Fittings
    8. 20.7 Pipe Joints
      1. Flanged Joints
      2. Welded Joints
    9. 20.8 Valves
      1. Globe Valves
      2. Check Valves
      3. Gate Valves
      4. Solenoid-Actuated Valves
    10. 20.9 American National Standard Code for Pressure Piping
    11. Key Words
    12. Chapter Summary
    13. Review Questions
    14. Chapter Exercises
  27. Chapter Twenty-One Welding Representation
    1. Understanding Weldment Drawings
      1. Welding Processes
      2. Standard Symbols
    2. Understanding a Welding Symbol
    3. 21.1 Types of Welded Joints
    4. 21.2 Types of Welds
    5. 21.3 Welding Symbols
    6. 21.4 Fillet Welds
    7. 21.5 Groove Welds
    8. 21.6 Back or Backing Welds
    9. 21.7 Surface Welds
    10. 21.8 Plug and Slot Welds
    11. 21.9 Spot Welds
    12. 21.10 Seam Welds
    13. 21.11 Projection Welds
    14. 21.12 Flash and Upset Welds
    15. 21.13 Welding Applications
    16. 21.14 Welding Templates
    17. 21.15 Computer Graphics
    18. Key Words
    19. Chapter Summary
    20. Review Questions
    21. Chapter Exercises
      1. Roof Truss Exercises
  28. Chapter Twenty-Two Axonometric Projection
    1. Understanding Axonometric Projection
      1. Projection Methods Reviewed
      2. Types of Axonometric Projection
    2. 22.1 Dimetric Projection
    3. 22.2 Approximate Dimetric Drawings
    4. 22.3 Trimetric Projection
    5. 22.4 Trimetric Scales
    6. 22.5 Trimetric Ellipses
    7. 22.6 Axonometric Projection Using Intersections
    8. 22.7 Computer Graphics
    9. 22.8 Oblique Projections
      1. Directions of Projectors
    10. 22.9 Ellipses for Oblique Drawings
      1. Alternative Four-Center Ellipses
      2. Four-Center Ellipse for Cavalier Drawings
    11. 22.10 Offset Measurements
    12. 22.11 Oblique Dimensioning
    13. 22.12 Computer Graphics
    14. Key Words
    15. Chapter Summary
    16. Review Questions
    17. Chapter Exercises
  29. Chapter Twenty-Three Perspective Drawings
    1. Understanding Perspectives
    2. 23.1 Perspective From a Multiview Projection
    3. 23.2 Nonrotated Side View Method for Perspective
    4. 23.3 Drawing an Angular Perspective
    5. 23.4 Position of the Station Point
    6. 23.5 Location of the Picture Plane
    7. 23.6 Bird’s-Eye View or Worm’s-Eye View
    8. 23.7 The Three Types of Perspectives
    9. 23.8 One-Point Perspective
    10. 23.9 One-Point Perspective of a Cylindrical Shape
    11. 23.10 Two-Point Perspective
    12. 23.11 Three-Point Perspective
    13. 23.12 Measurements in Perspective
    14. 23.13 Direct Measurements Along Inclined Lines
    15. 23.14 Vanishing Points of Inclined Lines
    16. 23.15 Inclined Lines in Perspective, Joining Endpoint Method
    17. 23.16 Curves and Circles in Perspective
    18. 23.17 The Perspective Plan Method
    19. 23.18 Perspective Diagram
    20. 23.19 Shading
    21. 23.20 Computer Graphics
    22. Key Words
    23. Chapter Summary
    24. Review Questions
    25. Chapter Exercises
  30. Glossary
  31. Appendices
  32. Index
  33. Credits