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Web Design in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition

Book Description

Web Design in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition contains the nitty-gritty on everything you need to know to design web pages. It's the good stuff, without the fluff, written and organized so that answers can be found quickly. This completely revised and expanded 2nd edition is chock-full of information about the wide range of front-end technologies and techniques from which web designers and authors must draw.

Web Design in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition is an excellent reference for HTML 4.01 tags (including tables, frames, forms, color, and cascading style sheets) with special attention given to browser support, platform idiosyncrasies, and standards. You'll also find lots of updated information on using graphics, multimedia, audio and video, and advanced technologies such Dynamic HTML, Javascript, and XML, as well as new chapters on XHTML, WML, and SMIL. This book is an indispensable tool for web designers and authors of all levels.

Web Design in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition includes:

  • Discussions of the web environment including monitors and browsers, printing from the Web, accessibility, and internationalization

  • A complete reference to HTML and Server Side Includes, including up-to-date browser support (Netscape 6, IE 6.0, and Opera 5) for every tag and attribute

  • Updated chapters on creating GIF, animated GIF, JPEG, and PNG graphics, including designing with the Web Palette

  • Information on multimedia and interactivity, including audio, video, Flash 5 and Shockwave, and a new chapter on SMIL

  • A revised tutorial and reference on Cascading Style Sheets

  • Appendixes detailing HTML tags, attributes, deprecated tags, proprietary tags, CSS compatibility and support, and character entities

  • Table of Contents

    1. Web Design in a Nutshell, 2nd Edition
      1. Preface
        1. Contents
          1. Part I
          2. Part II
          3. Part III
          4. Part IV
          5. Part V
          6. Part VI
        2. Conventions Used in This Book
        3. Request for Comments
        4. Acknowledgments
      2. I. The Web Environment
        1. 1. Designing for a Variety of Browsers
          1. Browsers
            1. The “Big Two”
            2. Other Browsers
              1. Internet Explorer on the Macintosh
              2. America Online
              3. WebTV
              4. Opera
              5. Lynx
          2. Browser Usage Statistics
            1. Browser Usage Resources
              1. Server log analysis
              2. Targeted statistics consulting
              3. General statistics listings
            2. Current Browser Usage Trends
            3. Browser Features
          3. Design Strategies
            1. Lowest Common Denominator Design
            2. Current Version Design
            3. Splitting the Difference
            4. Something for Everyone
            5. Take Advantage of Tools
          4. Knowing Your Audience
          5. Test, Test, Test!
          6. The Importance of Standards
        2. 2. Designing for a Variety of Displays
          1. Dealing with Unknown Monitor Resolutions
            1. Standard Monitor Sizes and Resolutions
            2. “Live” Space in the Browser Window
          2. Fixed Versus Flexible Web Page Design
            1. Flexible Design
              1. Advantages
              2. Disadvantages
              3. Creating flexible pages
            2. Fixed Design
              1. Advantages
              2. Disadvantages
              3. Creating fixed pages
              4. Pop-up windows
            3. Combination Pages
            4. Choosing a Page Size
              1. 640 × 480 versus 800 × 600
              2. The statistics
              3. The conventional wisdom
          3. Designing “Above the Fold”
          4. Monitor Color Issues
          5. Alternative Displays
            1. WebTV
            2. Hand-held Devices
        3. 3. Web Design Principles for Print Designers
          1. The Web Is Not Like Print
            1. Designing for the Unknown
            2. Surviving the Unknown
          2. Typography on the Web
            1. You Have Two Fonts
              1. Proportional font
              2. Fixed-width font
            2. Text in Graphics
              1. Advantages of GIF text
              2. Disadvantages of GIF text
            3. Why Specifying Type Is Problematic
              1. Type size
              2. Selecting fonts for web pages
              3. Core fonts for the Web from Microsoft
            4. Embedded Fonts
              1. TrueDoc Technology (“Dynamic Fonts”)
              2. OpenType (for Internet Explorer)
          3. Color on the Web
            1. Color on Computer Monitors
              1. RGB color
              2. Palettes
              3. Gamma
            2. Color in Browsers ( The Web Palette)
              1. Shifting and dithering
              2. The web palette in numbers
            3. Designing with the Web Palette
              1. Web authoring tools
              2. Photoshop swatches
            4. System Colors in Web Pages
          4. Graphics on the Web
            1. Graphics File Formats
              1. The ubiquitous GIF
              2. The handy JPEG
              3. The lurking PNG
            2. Image Resolution
              1. Image size
              2. Good-bye inches, hello pixels
            3. Be Aware of File Size
            4. Web Graphics Production Tips
              1. Work in RGB mode
              2. Resizing tips
              3. Use anti-aliased text
            5. For Further Reading
        4. 4. A Beginner’s Guide to the Server
          1. Servers 101
            1. Popular Server Software
            2. Basic Server Functions
              1. Root directory
              2. Index files
              3. HTTP response header
            3. Server-Side Programming
              1. CGI (Common Gateway Interface)
              2. ASP (Active Server Pages)
              3. PHP
              4. Java Servlets and JSP
          2. Unix Directory Structures
            1. Absolute Pathnames
            2. Relative Pathnames
              1. Using relative pathnames in HTML
          3. File Naming Conventions
          4. Uploading Documents (FTP)
            1. The FTP Process
            2. Setting Permissions
          5. File (MIME) Types
        5. 5. Printing from the Web
          1. Browser Print Mechanisms
          2. Printer-Friendly HTML Pages
            1. Keep the Page Narrow
            2. Keep Text Visible
            3. Think About Content
          3. Cascading Style Sheets for Printouts
            1. Creating the Style Sheets
            2. Connecting the Style Sheets and HTML
              1. Linking to media-dependent style sheets
              2. Using two embedded style sheets
              3. @import rule
              4. @media rule
          4. Portable Document Format (PDF)
            1. Viewing PDF Files
            2. Creating PDF Files
            3. HTML for Adding PDF Files to Web Pages
              1. Linking to a PDF file
              2. Linking to a specific page in a PDF file
              3. Embedding a PDF file
            4. Tips for Linking to PDF Files
            5. For Further Reading
          5. Flash Printing
        6. 6. Accessibility
          1. The Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI)
            1. Web Content Accessibility Guidelines
            2. The Guidelines
            3. The Techniques
          2. Accessibility in Web Technologies
            1. HTML 4.01 Features
            2. CSS2 Features
          3. Accessibility in Tools
            1. Content Creation
            2. Browsing Devices
        7. 7. Internationalization
          1. Character Sets
            1. 8-Bit Encoded Character Sets
            2. 16-Bit Encoded Character Sets
            3. Specifying Character Encoding
          2. HTML 4.01 Language Features
            1. The lang Attribute
            2. Directionality
            3. Cursive Joining Behavior
          3. Style Sheets Language Features
          4. For More Information
      3. II. Authoring
        1. 8. HTML Overview
          1. The HTML Standard
            1. Keeping Style Separate from Content
            2. Three Flavors of HTML 4.01
            3. The Web Standards Movement
            4. Web Standards in This Book
            5. The Future of HTML
          2. HTML Tags
            1. Containers
            2. Empty (“Standalone”) Tags
            3. Attributes
            4. Nesting HTML Tags
          3. Information Browsers Ignore
          4. Document Structure
          5. Tips on Good HTML Style
          6. HTML Tools
            1. HTML Editors
            2. WYSIWYG Authoring Tools
              1. Pros and cons
              2. Some available web authoring tools
          7. HTML Resources in This Book
        2. 9. Structural HTML Tags
          1. Summary of Structural Tags
            1. <body>
            2. <head>
            3. <html>
            4. <meta>
            5. <title>
          2. Setting Up an HTML Document
            1. The Document Type Declaration
            2. The Document Header
              1. Titles
              2. Other header elements
            3. The Document Body
          3. Global Settings with the <body> Tag
            1. Colors
            2. Tiling Background Graphics
            3. Adjusting Browser Margins
          4. Using <meta> Tags
            1. The http - equiv Attribute
              1. Meta tags for client-pull
              2. Other uses
            2. Inserting Meta-Information with the name Attribute
              1. Meta tags for search engines
              2. Other uses
        3. 10. Formatting Text
          1. Summary of Text Tags
            1. Paragraphs and Headings (Block-Level Elements)
              1. <address>
              2. <blockquote>
              3. <div>
              4. <h1> through <h6>
              5. <p>
            2. Text Appearance (Inline Styles)
              1. <abbr>
              2. <acronym>
              3. <b>
              4. <basefont>
              5. <big>
              6. <blink>
              7. <cite>
              8. <code>
              9. <del>
              10. <dfn>
              11. <em>
              12. <font>
              13. <i>
              14. <ins>
              15. <kbd>
              16. <q>
              17. <s>
              18. <samp>
              19. <small>
              20. <span>
              21. <strike>
              22. <strong>
              23. <sub>
              24. <sup>
              25. <tt>
              26. <u>
              27. <var>
            3. Spacing and Positioning
              1. <br>
              2. <center>
              3. <multicol>
              4. <nobr>
              5. <pre>
              6. <wbr>
            4. Lists
              1. <dir>
              2. <dl>
              3. <dd>
              4. <dt>
              5. <li>
              6. <menu>
              7. <ol>
              8. <ul>
          2. Working with HTML Text
            1. Paragraphs and Line Breaks
            2. Headings
          3. Inline Type Styles
            1. Logical Styles
            2. Physical Styles
          4. <div> and <span>
          5. The <font> Tag
            1. Specifying Size with <font>
              1. Advantage of <font size="n">
              2. Disadvantages of <font size="n">
              3. Recommendations
            2. Specifying Fonts with <font>
              1. Advantages of <font face="fontlist">
              2. Disadvantages of <font face="fontlist">
          6. Lists
            1. Unordered (Bulleted) Lists
              1. Changing the bullet shape
            2. Ordered (Numbered) Lists
              1. Changing the numbering scheme
              2. Setting the first number
            3. Definition Lists
            4. Nesting Lists
              1. Nesting unordered lists
              2. Nesting ordered lists
          7. Text Layout Techniques with HTML
            1. Preformatted Text
            2. Preventing Line Breaks
            3. Centering Text Elements
              1. The align attribute
              2. The <center> tag
            4. Right and Left Alignment
            5. Creating Indents with HTML
              1. <blockquote>
              2. Creating indents with list elements
          8. Character Entity References
        4. 11. Creating Links
          1. Summary of Tags Related to Linking
            1. <a>
            2. <area>
            3. <base>
            4. <link>
            5. <map>
          2. Simple Hypertext Links
            1. Absolute URLs
            2. Relative URLs
          3. Linking Within a Document
            1. Naming a fragment
            2. Linking to a fragment
            3. Linking to a fragment in another document
            4. Using named anchors
          4. Affecting the Appearance of Links
            1. Setting Colors in <body>
            2. Specifying Color for a Specific Link
            3. Setting Global Link Colors with Style Sheets
            4. Turning Off Underlines
            5. Changing Status Bar Text with JavaScript
          5. Targeting Windows
          6. Imagemaps
            1. Creating Imagemaps
              1. Available tools
              2. Creating the map
            2. Client-Side Imagemaps
              1. Sample client-side imagemap
            3. Server-Side Imagemaps
              1. Sample map definition file (.map) file
              2. The HTML document
            4. When Not to Use Imagemaps
              1. Providing complete alternative text
              2. Rollover buttons
          7. Non-Web Links and Protocols
            1. Mail Link (mailto:)
            2. FTP Link (ftp://)
            3. Other Links
          8. Linking Documents with <link>
        5. 12. Adding Images and Other Page Elements
          1. Summary of Object Placement Tags
            1. <applet>
            2. <embed>
            3. <hr>
            4. <img>
            5. <marquee>
            6. <noembed>
            7. <object>
            8. <param>
            9. <spacer>
          2. Image Basics
            1. Inline Graphic Uses
            2. Acceptable Graphics Formats
          3. The <img> Tag and Its Attributes
            1. Linked Graphics
            2. Alternative Text
            3. Specifying Width and Height
              1. Resizing images
              2. Using width and height to preload images
            4. Vertical Alignment
            5. Horizontal Alignment
              1. Adding space around aligned images
              2. Stopping text wrap
            6. Tips for Placing Graphics
              1. Link to large images
              2. Reuse images whenever possible
              3. The lowsrc trick
          4. Horizontal Rules
            1. Specifying Thickness
            2. Specifying the Rule Length
            3. Rule Alignment
            4. Turning Off 3-D Shading
            5. Creative Combinations
          5. Embedded Media Files
            1. The <object> Tag
              1. Adding an image
              2. Adding plug-in media
            2. The <embed> Tag
              1. Plug-in-specific attributes
              2. <noembed>
          6. Java Applets
            1. Advantages and Disadvantages
            2. What Applets Can Do
            3. Where to Get Applets
            4. Downloading and Using Java Applets
            5. Adding an Applet to a Page
              1. Adding applets with <object>
              2. Adding applets with <applet>
        6. 13. Tables
          1. Summary of Table Tags
            1. <caption>
            2. <col>
            3. <colgroup>
            4. <table>
            5. <tbody>
            6. <td>
            7. <tfoot>
            8. <th>
            9. <thead>
            10. <tr>
          2. Introduction to Tables
          3. Basic Table Structure
            1. Rows and Cells
              1. Table-level controls
              2. Row-level controls
              3. Cell-level controls
            2. Spanning Rows and Columns
              1. Column span
              2. Row span
            3. Row and Column Groups
              1. Row groups
              2. Column groups
              3. Sample HTML
          4. Affecting Table Appearance
            1. Borders, Frames, and Rules
              1. The border attribute
              2. The frame attribute
              3. The rules attribute
            2. Positioning a Table on the Page
            3. Aligning Text in Cells
            4. Sizing Tables
              1. Table dimensions
              2. Cell dimensions
            5. Table Cell Spacing
            6. Coloring Tables
          5. Table Troubleshooting
            1. Calculating Table Size
            2. Text in Tables
            3. Form Elements in Tables
            4. Unwanted White Space
              1. Returns and spaces within <td> tags
              2. Missing end tags
              3. Cellspacing in Navigator
            5. Collapsing Cells in Navigator
              1. Nonrendering text
              2. The single-pixel trick
              3. Using <spacer>
            6. Restraining Row Heights
            7. Column Span Problems
              1. The solution
          6. Tips and Tricks
            1. <font> and Tables
            2. Waiting for Tables to Display
            3. Baseline Alignment Trick
            4. Rowspans Made Easy
          7. Standard Table Templates
            1. A Simple Announcement Box
            2. Centering an Object in the Browser Window
            3. Creating a Vertical Rule
            4. Creating a Box Rule
            5. Two-Column Page Layouts
              1. First, a word about browser margins
              2. Fixed-width columns
              3. Relative column widths
              4. Combination
          8. Multipart Images in Tables
            1. Slicing and Dicing Tools
              1. Macromedia Fireworks
              2. Adobe ImageReady
              3. Adobe Photoshop 6
            2. Producing Images in Tables Manually
              1. Dividing the image (in Photoshop 4.0)
              2. Creating the table in HTML
        7. 14. Frames
          1. Summary of Frame Tags
            1. <frame>
            2. <frameset>
            3. <iframe>
            4. <noframes>
          2. Introduction to Frames
            1. Advantages
            2. Disadvantages
          3. Basic Frameset Structure
            1. <noframes> content
            2. Establishing Rows and Columns
              1. Specifying sizes
              2. Combining rows and columns
            3. Nesting Frames
          4. Frame Function and Appearance
            1. Frame Borders and Spacing
              1. Frameset borders
              2. Frame borders
              3. Border color
            2. Scrolling
            3. Disabling Resize
            4. Frame Margins
          5. Targeting Frames
            1. The <base> tag
            2. Reserved target names
          6. Inline (Floating) Frames
          7. Frame Design Tips and Tricks
            1. All-Purpose Pages
            2. External Links
            3. Helping Search Engines
            4. Loading Two Frames from One Link
              1. Loading a framed document
              2. Loading two frames with JavaScript
            5. Faking an <iframe>
            6. Frame-Proof Your Site
            7. Preloading Images with Hidden Frames
            8. Frames in WebTV
            9. Keeping Pages in Their Frames
            10. Frame Sizes in Netscape Navigator
        8. 15. Forms
          1. Summary of Form Tags
            1. <button>
            2. <fieldset>
            3. <form>
            4. <input type=button>
            5. <input type=checkbox>
            6. <input type=file>
            7. <input type=hidden>
            8. <input type=image>
            9. <input type=password>
            10. <input type=radio>
            11. <input type=reset>
            12. <input type=submit>
            13. <input type=text>
            14. <isindex>
            15. <label>
            16. <legend>
            17. <optgroup>
            18. <option>
            19. <select>
            20. <textarea>
          2. Introduction to Forms
          3. The Basic Form (<form>)
            1. The action Attribute
            2. The method Attribute
            3. Encoding
          4. Form Elements
            1. Input Controls: <input>
              1. Text entry (type=text)
              2. Password text entry (type=password)
              3. Hidden entry (type=hidden)
              4. Checkbox (type=checkbox)
              5. Radio button (type=radio)
              6. Submit and reset buttons (type=submit; type=reset)
              7. Custom button (type=button)
              8. Image button (type=image)
              9. File selection (type=file)
            2. Text Area: <textarea>
            3. Creating Menus with the <select> Tag
              1. Pull-down menus
              2. Scrolling menus
          5. New Form Attributes in HTML 4.01
          6. Affecting the Appearance of Forms
            1. Styling Form Controls with CSS
            2. Aligning Form Elements
              1. The <pre> tag
              2. Using tables for form alignment
            3. Working with Menus
          7. Demystifying CGI
            1. Ask Your Server Administrator
            2. Using Available Scripts
        9. 16. Specifying Color in HTML
          1. Specifying Color by RGB Values
            1. The Hexadecimal System
            2. Converting Decimal to Hexadecimal
            3. Hexadecimal Values for Web Palette Colors
          2. Specifying Colors by Name
            1. Grays
            2. Color Name Cautions
            3. Coloring Page Elements
        10. 17. Cascading Style Sheets
          1. Using Style Sheets
            1. Advantages
            2. Disadvantages
            3. Strategies for Using Style Sheets Today
            4. The Future of Style Sheets
            5. For Further Reading
          2. How Style Sheets Work
            1. Rule Syntax
            2. Adding Styles to an HTML Document
              1. Inline styles
              2. Embedded style sheets
                1. <style>
              3. External style sheets
            3. Inheritance
            4. Conflicting Style Sheets: The Cascade
          3. Selectors
            1. Type Selector
              1. <div> and <span>
            2. Contextual Selectors
            3. class and id Attribute Selectors
              1. class selector
              2. id selector
            4. Pseudo-Selectors
              1. Pseudo-elements
              2. Pseudo-classes
          4. Specifying Values
            1. Length Units
            2. Specifying Color
              1. By name
              2. By RGB values
          5. Properties
            1. Type-Related Properties
              1. font-family
              2. font-style
              3. font-variant
              4. font-weight
              5. font-size
              6. font
              7. color
              8. line-height
              9. word-spacing
              10. letter-spacing
              11. text-decoration
              12. vertical-align
              13. text-transform
              14. text-align
              15. text-indent
            2. Box Properties
              1. margin-top, margin-right, margin-bottom, margin-left
              2. margin
              3. padding-top, padding-right, padding-bottom, padding-left
              4. padding
              5. border-top-width, border-right-width, border-bottom-width, border-left-width
              6. border-width
              7. border-color
              8. border-style
              9. border-top, border-right, border-bottom, border-left
              10. border
              11. width
              12. height
              13. float
              14. clear
            3. Background Properties
              1. background-color
              2. background-image
              3. background-repeat
              4. background-attachment
              5. background-position
              6. background
            4. Classification Properties
              1. display
              2. white-space
              3. list-style-type
              4. list-style-image
              5. list-style-position
              6. list-style
          6. Positioning with Style Sheets
            1. The position Property
              1. Relative positioning
              2. Absolute positioning
              3. Static positioning
            2. Z-Order
            3. Visibility
            4. Overflow
          7. What’s New in CSS2
            1. New Selectors
            2. New Properties
            3. Font Descriptors
            4. New Pseudo-Selectors
            5. New “at-rules”
            6. New Values for Existing Properties
          8. Style Sheet Tips and Tricks
            1. Style Sheet MIME Types
            2. Specifying Text Size in Pixels
            3. Creating a Drop Cap
            4. Table Troubles in Older Browsers
            5. Making Backgrounds Behave in Navigator 4.x
            6. Beware Box Properties in Navigator 4.x
          9. Browser Support Charts
        11. 18. Server Side Includes
          1. How SSI Is Used
            1. Advantages
            2. Disadvantages
            3. Getting the Most Out of SSI
          2. SSI and the Server
          3. Adding SSI Commands to a Document
            1. Example: Virtual Includes
          4. Using Environment Variables
            1. Example: Printing the Date and Time
          5. XSSI
            1. Flow Control Elements
            2. Setting Variables
          6. SSI Commands
            1. config
            2. echo
            3. exec
            4. fsize
            5. flastmod
            6. include
            7. printenv
            8. set
          7. Include Variables
            1. Other Available Variables
          8. Time Formats for SSI Output
      4. III. Graphics
        1. 19. GIF Format
          1. GIF87a Versus GIF89a
          2. 8-Bit Indexed Color
          3. GIF Compression
          4. When to Use GIFs
          5. Tools Overview
          6. Interlacing
            1. Advantages
            2. Disadvantages
          7. Transparency
            1. Preventing “Halos”
              1. Use aliased edges
              2. Use a matte color tool
              3. Use a colored background layer
            2. Preventing Unwanted Transparent Areas
              1. Creating a distinct color for transparency
              2. Changing the distinct color without losing transparency
          8. Minimizing GIF File Sizes
            1. Tools for Optimizing GIFs
            2. Design Strategies
              1. Limit dimensions
              2. Design with flat color
              3. Reduce number of colors (bit depth)
              4. Limit dithering
              5. Lossy GIFs
            3. Weighted Optimization (Photoshop 6/ImageReady 3)
              1. Weighted color reduction
              2. Weighted dithering
              3. Weighted lossiness
            4. Optimize to a File Size in Photoshop 5.5+
        2. 20. JPEG Format
          1. 24-Bit Color
          2. JPEG Compression
            1. Image Loss
            2. Variable Compression Levels
            3. JPEG Decompression
          3. When to Use JPEGs
          4. Progressive JPEGs
            1. Advantages
            2. Disadvantages
          5. Creating JPEGs
          6. Minimizing JPEG File Size
            1. Aggressive Compression Ratios
            2. “Optimized” JPEGs
            3. Softening the Image for Better Compression
            4. Using the HVS JPEG Plug-in
            5. Optimize to File Size in Photoshop 5.5+
            6. Weighted Optimization (Photoshop 6/ImageReady 3)
        3. 21. PNG Format
          1. The PNG Story
          2. When to Use PNGs
            1. Not a JPEG Substitute
            2. Potential GIF Substitute
          3. Platform/Browser Support
          4. 8-Bit Palette, Grayscale, and Truecolor
            1. 8-Bit Palette Images
            2. Grayscale
            3. Truecolor
          5. PNG Compression
            1. Filters
          6. Special Features
            1. Interlacing (Progressive Display)
            2. Gamma Correction
            3. Transparency
              1. Alpha channel transparency
              2. 8-bit transparency
            4. Embedded Text
          7. Creating PNG Files
            1. Fireworks (2 and higher)
            2. Photoshop 5.5/ImageReady (and Higher)
            3. The GIMP
          8. PNG Optimization Strategies
          9. For Further Reading
        4. 22. Designing Graphics with the Web Palette
          1. Designing with Web-Safe Colors
            1. Tools with Built-in Web Palettes
            2. Color Look-Up Tables (CLUT Files)
              1. Creating a CLUT file in Photoshop 4.0
              2. CLUT files for other graphics programs
          2. Converting to the Web Palette
            1. Applying the Strict Web Palette
            2. “Snapping” to Web Colors
              1. Macromedia Fireworks
              2. Adobe ImageReady (Photoshop 5.5 and higher)
              3. Web Scrubber plug-in filter (Furbo Filters)
          3. Web Palette Strategies
            1. Flat Graphical Images
            2. Photographic Images
            3. Combination Images (Flat and Photographic Areas)
          4. Color Blenders
            1. The Pros and Cons of Color Blenders
              1. Advantages
              2. Disadvantages
            2. Creating Hybrid Colors
              1. Photoshop/ImageReady
              2. Fireworks
            3. Creating Hybrid Background Tiles in Photoshop
          5. Where to Learn More
        5. 23. Animated GIFs
          1. How They Work
          2. Using Animated GIFs
          3. Browser Support
          4. Tools
            1. Applications That Include GIF Animation Tools
            2. GIF Animation Utilities
          5. Creating Animated GIFs
            1. Frame Delay
            2. Transparency
            3. Disposal Methods
            4. Color Palette
            5. Other Options
            6. Starting Points
          6. Optimizing Animated GIFs
            1. Image Compression
            2. Optimizing Methods
      5. IV. Multimedia and Interactivity
        1. 24. Audio on the Web
          1. Basic Digital Audio Concepts
          2. Using Existing Audio
            1. Copyright Restrictions
            2. Royalty-Free Audio Resources
          3. Preparing Your Own Audio
            1. Recording
            2. Basic Sound Editing and Effects
              1. Windows audio tools
              2. Mac audio tools
              3. Tools for both Mac and Windows systems
            3. Optimizing for the Web
          4. Streaming Audio
            1. Streaming File Formats
            2. Server Software and Protocols
            3. Pseudo-Streaming
          5. Web Audio Formats
            1. WAV/AIFF (.wav, .aif, .aiff)
            2. MP3 (.mp3)
              1. MPEG compression
              2. Creating MP3s
              3. Serving MP3s
            3. Apple QuickTime Audio (.mov)
            4. MIDI (.mid)
            5. RealMedia/RealAudio (.rm, .ra)
            6. Windows Media (.wma, .asf)
            7. Liquid Audio
            8. Flash (.swf) and Shockwave (.dcr)
            9. Beatnik’s Rich Music Format (.rmf)
          6. Choosing an Audio Format
          7. Adding Audio to a Web Page
            1. A Simple Link
            2. Background Sound
            3. Adding RealMedia
              1. Linking to RealMedia (external player)
              2. Embedding RealPlayer on the page
            4. Adding Windows Media
          8. For Further Reading
        2. 25. Video on the Web
          1. Basic Digital Video Concepts
          2. Compression
            1. Lossless Versus Lossy Compression
            2. Spatial Versus Temporal Compression
            3. Video Codecs
          3. Video File Formats
            1. QuickTime Movie (.mov)
              1. Streaming
              2. Creating QuickTime movies
              3. Reference movies
              4. For more information
            2. RealMedia (.rm)
            3. Windows Media (.wmv or .asf)
            4. AVI (.avi)
            5. MPEG (.mpg or .mpeg)
          4. Which Format to Choose
          5. Adding Video to an HTML Document
            1. A Simple Link
            2. Streaming Video
              1. RealMedia
              2. Windows Media
            3. Embedded QuickTime Movies
              1. Browser <embed> attributes
              2. Special QuickTime <embed> attributes
            4. The dynsrc Attribute
          6. For Further Reading
        3. 26. Flash and Shockwave
          1. Using Flash on Web Pages
            1. Advantages
            2. Disadvantages
          2. Flash Power Tools
            1. ActionScript
            2. Macromedia Generator 2
          3. Creating Flash Movies
            1. File Formats
            2. Flash Interface Basics
            3. Optimizing Flash Movies
            4. Configuring the Server
          4. Adding Flash to a Web Page
            1. Using Flash Publish Settings
            2. Adding Flash to an HTML Document
              1. The <embed> tag
              2. The <object> tag
              3. Putting it together for all browsers
          5. Integrating Flash with Other Technologies
            1. Flash and QuickTime
            2. Flash and RealPlayer
          6. Flash Resources
          7. Shockwave for Director
            1. Advantages
            2. Disadvantages
            3. Creating Shockwave Movies
            4. Configuring the Server
          8. Adding Shockwave Movies to a Web Page
          9. Director Online Resources
        4. 27. Introduction to SMIL
          1. How SMIL Works
          2. SMIL Players
          3. SMIL Authoring Tools
          4. Writing SMIL
            1. Well-Formed Code
            2. Document Structure
            3. Controlling Layout
            4. Media Elements
              1. Putting an element in its place
            5. Timing the Presentation
              1. Time containers
              2. Time control attributes
              3. Relative timing
            6. Controlling Content Display
          5. For Further Reading
            1. Books
            2. Online Resources
      6. V. Advanced Technologies
        1. 28. Introduction to JavaScript
          1. JavaScript History
          2. JavaScript Basics
            1. Functions
            2. Event Handlers
          3. Sample Scripts
            1. Status Line Messages
            2. Opening a New Window
            3. Managing Frames
            4. Image Rollovers
              1. Simple rollovers
              2. Changing two images at once
          4. Handling Multiple Browsers
            1. Checking for Browsers
            2. Browser Compatibility
        2. 29. Introduction to DHTML
          1. Using DHTML
            1. Advantages to Using DHTML
            2. Disadvantages
          2. How DHTML Works
          3. The Document Object Model
          4. Creating Layers
          5. DHTML Examples
            1. Rollover Style Changes
            2. Drop-Down Menus
            3. Sliding Tabs
          6. Browser Detection
            1. Layers in the 4.0 Browsers
          7. DHTML Tools
            1. Advantages
            2. Disadvantages
          8. Where to Learn More
        3. 30. Introduction to XML
          1. Background
          2. How It Works
            1. The XML Document
            2. Style Sheets and XML
          3. XML Document Syntax
            1. Well-Formed XML
            2. Namespaces
          4. Document Type Definition (DTD)
            1. A Simple DTD
            2. Valid XML
            3. When to Use a DTD
          5. Examples of XML Technology
            1. Standard XML Languages
              1. Synchronized Multimedia Integration Language (SMIL)
              2. Scalable Vector Graphics (SVG)
              3. Mathematical Markup Language (MathML)
              4. Resource Description Framework (RDF)
            2. Other XML Applications
          6. Where to Learn More
        4. 31. XHTML
          1. XHTML Standards Development
            1. XHTML 1.0
              1. Strict DTD
              2. Transitional DTD
              3. Frameset DTD
            2. XHTML Basic
            3. XHTML 1.1 (Modular XHTML)
          2. Creating XHTML 1.0 Documents
            1. Tools
            2. Validation
          3. XHTML Document Declarations
          4. Well-Formed XHTML
            1. All-Lowercase Element Names
            2. Quoted Attribute Values
            3. End Tags
            4. Empty Elements
            5. Explicit Attribute Values
            6. Nesting Requirements
            7. Character Entities
            8. Protecting Scripts
            9. id and name Attributes
          5. Try It Out
        5. 32. WAP and WML
          1. About WAP
            1. The Wireless Environment
            2. How WAP Works
            3. Serving WAP Content
          2. Creating WAP Applications
            1. A New Model
            2. WAP Browsers
            3. Handheld Devices
            4. Size Limitations
            5. WAP Emulators
          3. Introduction to WML
            1. Document Structure
            2. Formatting Text
            3. Adding Links
            4. Images
            5. Tables
            6. Programming Softkeys
            7. Interactivity
          4. WML Elements and Attributes
            1. <a>
            2. <access>
            3. <anchor>
            4. <b>
            5. <big>
            6. <br>
            7. <card>
            8. <do>
            9. <em>
            10. <fieldset>
            11. <go>
            12. <head>
            13. <i>
            14. <img>
            15. <input>
            16. <meta>
            17. <noop>
            18. <onevent>
            19. <option>
            20. <optgroup>
            21. <p>
            22. <postfield>
            23. <prev>
            24. <refresh>
            25. <select>
            26. <setvar>
            27. <small>
            28. <strong>
            29. <table>
            30. <td>
            31. <template>
            32. <timer>
            33. <tr>
            34. <u>
            35. <wml>
          5. WAP and WML Resources
      7. VI. Appendixes
        1. A. HTML Elements
        2. B. List of Attributes
        3. C. Deprecated Tags
          1. Deprecated Elements
          2. Deprecated Attributes
        4. D. Proprietary Tags
          1. Microsoft Internet Explorer Proprietary Tags
          2. Netscape Navigator Proprietary Tags
        5. E. CSS Support Chart
          1. Notes
        6. F. Character Entities
          1. Standard Character Entities
            1. Latin Extended-A
            2. Latin Extended-B
            3. Spacing Modifier Letters
            4. Greek
            5. General Punctuation
            6. Letter-like Symbols
            7. Arrows
            8. Mathematical Operators
            9. Miscellaneous Technical Symbols
            10. Geometric Shapes
            11. Miscellaneous Symbols
      8. Glossary
      9. Index
      10. Colophon