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Advanced Signal Integrity For High-Speed Digital Designs by HOWARD L. HECK, STEPHEN H. HALL

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10

TOPICS IN HIGH-SPEED CHANNEL MODELING

10.1 Creating a Physical Transmission-Line Model

10.1.1 Tabular Approach

10.1.2 Generating a Tabular Dielectric Model

10.1.3 Generating a Tabular Conductor Model

10.2 NonIdeal Return Paths

10.2.1 Path of Least Impedance

10.2.2 Transmission Line Routed over a Gap in the Reference Plane

10.2.3 Summary

10.3 Vias

10.3.1 Via Resonance

10.3.2 Plane Radiation Losses

10.3.3 Parallel-Plate Waveguide

References

Problems

So far, we have covered numerous topics that are required for the design of modern high–speed digital systems. There are a few important topics, however, that do not fit nicely into the flow of the other chapters. This section covers a few critical aspects of digital design that are important to understand. First, a methodology for creating frequency–dependent tabular transmission–line models is presented. The tabular format is a convenient way to model the frequency–dependent nature of the conductor and dielectrics described in Chapters 5 and 6. Next, the problem of nonideal current return paths is explored so that the engineer will understand how they affect signal integrity. Finally, the signal integrity impact of transitioning between layers using plated–through–hole vias is discussed.

10.1 CREATING A PHYSICAL TRANSMISSION-LINE MODEL

Digital design is typically performed using circuit simulators. Fortunately, most commercially available tools have transmission–line models that can be integrated with the digital circuitry to perform ...

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