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Advanced Signal Integrity For High-Speed Digital Designs by HOWARD L. HECK, STEPHEN H. HALL

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APPENDIX A

USEFUL FORMULAS, IDENTITIES, UNITS, AND CONSTANTS

Constants

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Decibels

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Units

Time

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Frequency

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Length

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Circuits

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Vector Formulas

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Theorems from Vector Calculus

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Explicit Forms of Vector Operations

Cartesian (x, y, z)

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Cylindrical (r, φ, z)

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Spherical (r, θ, φ)

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Coordinate Transformations

Rectangular to Cylindrical

Rectangular to Spherical

Cylindrical to Spherical

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