We define a *column n*-vector to be an array of *n* numbers, denoted

The number *a*_{i} is called the *i*th component of the vector ** a**. Denote by the set of real numbers and by

We define a *row n*-vector as

The *transpose* of a given column vector ** a** is a row vector with corresponding elements, denoted

then

Equivalently, ...

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