Recall that the method of steepest descent uses only first derivatives (gradients) in selecting a suitable search direction. This strategy is not always the most effective. If higher derivatives are used, the resulting iterative algorithm may perform better than the steepest descent method. *Newton’s method* (sometimes called the *Newton-Raphson method*) uses first and second derivatives and indeed does perform better than the steepest descent method if the initial point is close to the minimizer. The idea behind this method is as follows. Given a starting point, we construct a quadratic approximation to the objective function that matches the first and second derivative values at that point. We then minimize the approximate (quadratic) function instead of the original objective function. We use the minimizer of the approximate function as the starting point in the next step and repeat the procedure iteratively. If the objective function is quadratic, then the approximation is exact, and the method yields the true minimizer in one step. If, on the other hand, the objective function is not quadratic, then the approximation will provide only an estimate of the position of the true minimizer. Figure 9.1 illustrates this idea.

We can obtain a quadratic ...

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