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Database Systems: Concepts, Design and Applications by S. K. Singh

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Foreword

Databases have become ubiquitous, touching almost every activity. Every IT application today uses databases in some form or the other. They have tremendous impact in all applications, and have made qualitative changes in fields as diverse as health, education, entertainment, industry, and banking.

Database systems have evolved from the late 1960s hierarchical and network models to today’s relational model. From the earlier file-based system (basically repositories of data, providing very simple retrieval facilities), they now address complex environments, offering a range of functionalities in user-friendly environment. The academic community has strived, and is continuing to strive, to improve these services. At the back of these complex ...

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